Training - Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

IO > Training - Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Training - Chapter 8 Deck (34):

Kirkpatrick’s criteria refer to the training programs ultimate value to the company



It is more likely to happen when trainers maximize the similarity between training and the job situation

Transfer of Training


The key for good training that could be simplified by the acronym IDPF

Information, demonstration, practice, feedback


Criteria that reflect how much of the material is actually learned in the training program



These must be present for work simulator training to be affective

Physical and psychological fidelity


Formal procedures that a company utilized to facilitate learning so that the resultant behavior contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives
- planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning, retention and transfer of a job related behavior in employees



Relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experience and practice



Distributed practice

Training that is divided into segments, w/ rest periods in between


Massed practice

Training that takes place at one time, w/o breaks


Process of giving trainees continued practice even after they have appeared to master the behavior, resulting in high levels of learning



Extent to which the material, skills, or procedures learned in training are taken back to the job and used by the employee in some regular fashion

Transfer of Training


What are the two types of transfer training?

Positive transfer: hope is that what is learned in the training program will improve job performance

Negative transfer: performance declines as a results of training


What are the 3 categories of learning outcomes?

Cognitive outcomes: declarative knowledge (rules, facts, principles)

Skill-based outcomes- being able to DO something (motor or technical skills)

Affective outcomes - attitudes or beliefs that impact behavior


Physical fidelity

Extent to which the operation of the equipment mimics that in the real world


Psychological fidelity

Extent to which the behavioral processes needed for success on the job are also necessary for success in the training stimulation



Knowledge of results
- provides info, so changes can be made to behaviors
- makes learning process more interesting and increases motivation to learn
-leads to goal setting for improving performance


- Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention
- likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities(over learning) after they have demonstrated mastery of task




Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job


Whole learning

When entire task is practiced at once
- more effective when complex task has a relatively high organization


Part learning

When sub tasks are practiced separately and later combined
-more effective when complex task has low organization
Ex: surgeons and pilots


4 types of transfer of training and definitions

1) positive transfer: training improves performance

2) negative transfer: performance declined after training

3) horizontal transfer: across settings at same level in organization

4) vertical transfer: across levels in organization( individual training translating to team outcomes)


Characteristics of a positive transfer

- early socialization indicating training is important
-continuous learning culture
- adequate peer and supervisor support
- opportunities to use learned capabilities
- access to equipment or resources that are essential for transfer of training
- adequate working conditions
- regular feedback and positive reinforcement for improved performance


Reinforcement theory
- positive reinforcement
-behavior modification

Learning results from association between behaviors and rewards
*positive reinforcement: desired behavior followed by reward
*behavior modification: simple recognition and feedback can be effective in increasing performance


4 basic principles of training methods

1) present relevant info and content to be learned
2) demonstrate KSAOs to be learned
3) create opportunities for trainees to practice skills
4) provide feedback to trainees during and after practice


Most widely used training technique in Organizations

Underlying assumption: new EE can learn job by watching an experienced EE perform job, talking w/ the employee, working with actual job materials
-potential downside: reliance on trainer

On the job training (OJT)


One-on-one collaborative relationship in which individual provides performance related guidance



Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information that can be used to make effective training decisions

Training evaluation


Four types of evaluations that KIrkpatrick uses...

1) reaction criteria: how do you feel about the program?

2) learning criteria: (knowledge retention) how much material is actually learned in the training program

3) behavioral criteria: (transfer) changed that took place back on the job

4) results criteria: ultimate value of the training program to the company


Task analysis

Examines what EEs must do to perform job properly

-developing task statements
-determining homogenous task clusters
-Identifying KSAOs required for job


Organizational Analysis

Examines organizations goals, available resources, and environment to determine where training should be directed


Personal Analysis

Identify which EEs are most in need of training
- use performance appraisal data the identify EEs
-assessment of trainee personality, ability, and experience increasingly being used as part of needs analysis


Organizational socialization

Process by which an individual acquirs the attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge needed to participate as an organizational member


Self- directed techniques

Trainees work at their own pace to remedy identified weaknesses using self-instructional materials


Delivery of educational or training materials usually through electronic means, to people at different locations at the same time

Distance Learning (DL)