Flashcards in Transmission of communicable diseases Deck (7)
Animals: Direct Transmission
- Where a pathogen is transferred directly from one affected organism to another.
- Direct Contact: exchange of bodily fluids, skin-to-skin contact, from microorganisms in faeces on the hands etc.
- Inoculation: through a break in the skin or puncture wound, animal bites etc.
- Ingestion: taking in contaminated food or drink, transferring pathogens from hand to mouth etc.
Animals: Indirect Transmission
- Where a pathogen travels from one infected individual to another through the means of an unaffected object or organism.
- Fomites: Objects such as bedding, socks and cosmetics etc.
- Droplet Infection: Minute droplets of saliva and mucus expelled when coughing, sneezing or talking etc.
- Vectors: Usually an unaffected organism which hosts the pathogen before transferring it.
- Water: Contaminated water can be classed as an inanimate vector of disease.
Animals: Factors affecting transmission in animals
- Overcrowding and poor working/living conditions.
- Poor Nutrition.
- Compromised immune system as a result of another pathogen.
- Climate Change (changing climates mean different pathogens and vectors are able to survive in places they otherwise wouldn’t, where people have no immunity)
- Traditional medical practices and other cultural factors.
- Socioeconomic factors such as a lack of trained health workers or public warnings.
- Close contact between humans and animals (zoonoses)
Plants: Direct Transmission
- Direct Contact: Where a healthy plant comes into contact with any part of a diseased plant.
Plants: Indirect Transmission
- Soil Contamination: Pathogens or reproductive spores are often left in the soil, infecting the next crop. Also in composting.
- Vectors: Animals and humans can transfer spores from one plant to another by coming into contact, can also spread by feeding, aphids etc innoculate pathogen in directly etc.
- Wind and Water: Can be classed as vectors, carried on the wind, on the water’s surface, swim in water and contaminate plants it is used on.
Plants: Factors Affecting Transmission in Plants
- Using crops strains which are susceptible.
- Poor mineral nutrition.
- Damp, warm conditions increase pathogen’s chances of survival, reproduction and spread.
- Climate Change.
Preventing spread of communicable disease in plants
- Leave room between plants to stop direct contact.
- Clear fields thoroughly to reduce all traces of plants.
- Rotate crops regularly so susceptible species are not always close to pathogen.
- Strict hygiene practices.