Flashcards in Trauma Deck (20):
How should an open fracture be managed?
Check neurovascular status of limb
Remove gross contamination
Cover wound in saline soaked gauze and splint
Wound washout, debridement & stabilisation within 24 hours
What local factors can lead to delayed union?
Infection, segmental #, scaphoid, distal tibia, 5th metatarsal
What systemic factors can lead to delayed union?
DM, smoking, HIV, steroids, NSAIDs
Which nerve is a mid shaft humerus # likely to damage?
Which nerve is a fibula neck # likely to damage?
Which nerve is a supracondylar # likely to damage?
Which nerve is a shoulder dislocation likely to damage?
Which nerve is a hip likely to damage?
What is the definition of osteoporosis?
Bone mineral density at least 2.5 standard deviations below the average value for a young healthy person of the same race and sex
What is the definition of osteopaenia?
Bone mineral density 1 standard deviations below the average value for a young healthy person of the same race and sex
What forms part of a primary survey?
Airway maintenance and cervical spine control
Breathing and ventilation
Circulation with haemorrhage control
Disability: neuro status
Exposure and environment control
What are the principles of treating fractures?
Stabilise and preserve blood supply
What is a pathological fracture?
A fracture through abnormal bone
What is patient controlled analgesia?
Self-administration of a small bolus of IV opioid - should be pressed at onset of discomfort
What are signs of compartment syndrome?
Pain not responding to analgesia
Red, swollen limb
Pain exacerbated by passive stretch
How is compartment syndrome managed?
Check neurovascular status
Release any dressings/casts
Position limb level with heart
Contact seniors - may need fasciotomy
What is neuropraxia?
Reversible conduction block due to injury to the axon sheath
What is axonotmesis?
Disruption to the myelin sheath and axon
What is neurotmesis?
Complete nerve division and disruption of the endoneurium