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Flashcards in Trauma Deck (20):
1

How should an open fracture be managed?

Check neurovascular status of limb
Remove gross contamination
Take photo
Cover wound in saline soaked gauze and splint
IV antibiotics
Wound washout, debridement & stabilisation within 24 hours

2

What local factors can lead to delayed union?

Infection, segmental #, scaphoid, distal tibia, 5th metatarsal

3

What systemic factors can lead to delayed union?

DM, smoking, HIV, steroids, NSAIDs

4

Which nerve is a mid shaft humerus # likely to damage?

Radial

5

Which nerve is a fibula neck # likely to damage?

Common peroneal

6

Which nerve is a supracondylar # likely to damage?

Median

7

Which nerve is a shoulder dislocation likely to damage?

Axillary

8

Which nerve is a hip likely to damage?

Sciatic

9

What is the definition of osteoporosis?

Bone mineral density at least 2.5 standard deviations below the average value for a young healthy person of the same race and sex

10

What is the definition of osteopaenia?

Bone mineral density 1 standard deviations below the average value for a young healthy person of the same race and sex

11

What forms part of a primary survey?

Airway maintenance and cervical spine control
Breathing and ventilation
Circulation with haemorrhage control
Disability: neuro status
Exposure and environment control

12

What are the principles of treating fractures?

Reduce
Stabilise and preserve blood supply
Rehabilitate

13

What is a pathological fracture?

A fracture through abnormal bone

14

What is patient controlled analgesia?

Self-administration of a small bolus of IV opioid - should be pressed at onset of discomfort

15

What are signs of compartment syndrome?

Pain not responding to analgesia
Red, swollen limb
Pain exacerbated by passive stretch

16

How is compartment syndrome managed?

Check neurovascular status
Review analgesia
Release any dressings/casts
Position limb level with heart
Contact seniors - may need fasciotomy

17

What is neuropraxia?

Reversible conduction block due to injury to the axon sheath

18

What is axonotmesis?

Disruption to the myelin sheath and axon

19

What is neurotmesis?

Complete nerve division and disruption of the endoneurium

20

What is compartment syndrome?

When pressure within a fascial compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure