Flashcards in Traumatic Experiences Deck (22):
Adverse Childhood Experiences study
ACES lead disrupt neurodevelopment which has a direct relationship with social, cognitive, and emotional impairment which leads to adoption of high risk behaviors resulting in disease and early mortality. ACEs come in groups, produce behaviors that create chronic disease. Many of these behaviors are adaptive for dealing with the ACE, but are problematic for the rest of their life. Cumulative ACEs increase complexity of case
Activation of defenses and possible outcomes
See slide! Defenses work: energy dissipates, system relaxes. Defenses do not work, threat does not resolve--> energy is held somatically. There can either be effective treatment leading to system relaxing or system remains emotionally charged and can be triggered internally or externally. In this last case, system stays charged and hyperreactive; behaviors are aimed at trying to calm the system down.
Trauma informed care
Three Rs: Realize the widespread impact of the trauma, Recognize signs and symptoms of trauma, and Respond by integrating knowledge of trauma into policies
Variables affecting effect of trauma on an individual
Genetic vulnerability, developmental state at time of trauma, nature/severity of event, frequency/duration of trauma, strength/adaptiveness of defense, strength/clarity of one's sense of self prior to incident, extent of previous trauma
Categories of trauma
Impersonal trauma (disasters/accidents) vs Personal trauma (human initiated).
Types of Personal Trauma
Attachment trauma: partner/family/etc. Interpersonal trauma: acquaintance or stranger. Self-directed trauma (self-harm/suicide). Systemic Trauma: social, cultural, political, economic, etc
Characteristics of worst trauma
Repetitive (chronic), human initiated (especially if intentional or by caregivers), normal fight/flight response not possible, and lack of emotional support following the trauma
Trauma related to an attachment (partner/family member etc) in the individual's life. When an attachment seeking response is activated (via fear or need) but the attachment figure is not available, there is grief and mourning. Core bind in attachment trauma is "How do i stay in proximity to this attachment source when they're also a source of danger??"' Chronic attachment trauma frequently produces individuals unable to form supportive relationships .
Fear (emotional) system
Amygdala --> Hypothalamus --> release of stress. HPA axis. Rapid, general ideas about avoid/approach/flee/fight. Instinctive
Path through sensory cortex; longer path, takes more time, more precise and discriminating
Receives input from senses and transmits stimuli to neocortex and limbic system. Relay station
Regulates survival behaviors via SNS/PNS (FREEZING) signaling. Plays role in parental care and play. Regulates emotional expression. Influences memory processing
MATURE AT BIRTH. Operates at implicit level. Center of negative and emotional memory processing. Becomes active while RECALLING a negative event. Can take over consciousness by emotion
Matures by 2-3 years. CONTEXUALIZES an event by giving it time and place. When did it happen/what came before it? Declarative memory
Oriented to outside world. Problem solving. Helps decide which stimuli are important and which ones are not. Predicting outcomes of behaviors.
Types of memory
Explicit (Declarative), Implicit (Procedural)
Concious, facts, autobiographical information. Hippocampus
Implicit memory (Procedural)
Unconscious. Encoded on nonverbal sensory level. UNCONSCIOUS SKILLS. Relatively unaffected by disease. Located in occipital cortex, striatum, and cerebellum.
Most important things we learn
Process of remembering
Memories are reconstructed each time you re-remember something. Confabulation: make up something to fill memory void.
Thalamus can send signals directly to amygdala, bypassing neocortex. Does this in times of extreme stress/fight or flight mode. Triggers pre-cognitive emotion. Emotional system can act independently of cognitive system. Ergo, emotional memories can be activated without involvement of cognitive conscious processes. High levels of arousal in amygdala can interfere with hippocampal functioning --> experience is not evaluated and categorized. Sensory imprints of experience are stored from memory, but context is not organized as a whole.