Flashcards in True false questions. Test 2 Deck (47):
Well, this might be a bit picky but...It takes about 580 cal of heat to change 1 g of water from liquid to vapor, which is important in dissipating excess heat from out body through, for instance, evaporation!
"Uric acid" can be synthesized from Gln, Gly, and Asp in birds, and they also have some "urea" in their urine because urea can be produced from metabolism of purine!
We should always try to provide clean drinking water, and "total dissolved solids or TDS" should be less than 3,000 and 5,00 or 7,000 ppm for poultry and pigs respectively.
Usually, nitrite does not have any adverse effects on nonruminant animals, but bacteria in water may convert it to nitrate, which can form met-Hb (methemoglobin) and reduce O2 carrying capacity.
Net effects of "aldosterone?" Well, it can increase Na retention in the ECF and increase K excretion, which are important in maintaining blood pressure, but we may also end up with "K deficiency" under stressful conditions.
We all know that "fructose" is the sweetest sugar we have and also its absorption rate is low compared with other sugars.
It seems that "mannose" which is found in plant glycoproteins, serum globulins, etc., can be an important pentose for nonriminant species because it is converted to glucose
-pentose should be hexose
****Because "molasses" contains fairly high concentrations of Mg and K, which have a laxative effect by a B-galactosidic linkage, and animals do not have enzyme to split that linkage. Thus undigested carbohydrates can be passed down to the hindgut where they are fermented...which can result in production of a large amount of gases.
We tend to think "fruits" are high in fructose , but ,actually, there are a lot of variations amount the fruits in the fructose content. For instance, apples, and pears are rather high in the proportion of fructose, but banana and cantaloupe are rather high in sucrose
"Lignin" is a high-molecular weight, amorphous carbohydrate polymer, which is important for the structural integrity of plant cell walls
"Available or bioavailable" nutrients can be defines as those digests, absorbed and utilized and perhaps the absorption rate and efficient of utilization may have little to do with the inherent feature of some feedstuffs or diets.
Although "dietary fiber" seems to have many beneficial effects, it may also have some adverse effects on nonruminant species such as reducing digestibility of protein, minerals (especially, divalent mineral elements), and lipids.
Obviously it would certainly depend on the type of fiber, but it seems that at a low inclusion rate, some nonruminant species are more efficient in the utilization of dietary fiber than ruminant species.
***When we need energy or glucose, glucagon can trigger "cascade sequences," and the end result being the cleavage of a-1,4 linkage by "phosphorylase a " to release a glucose molecule from glycogen.
Compared with long-chain fatty acids, "short and medium" chain triglycerides or MCT can be utilized more efficiently by e.g., young pigs simply because those shorter fatty acids can be absorbed into the lymphatic system without micelle formation
"Linoleic acid" is a metabolically essential fatty acid, whereas arachidonic acid" is a dietary essential fatty acid because it can be readily converted to linoleic acid.
-swap the acids
It seems that cat family just cannot saturate linoleic and linoleic acids, this they need specific polyunsaturated fatty acids of animal origin.
***Although there seem to be some lingual and gastric lipase in rats and humans, we usually assume that most lipids are delivered to the duodenum without any changes in the nonruminant species.
***In ruminant species, microbes in the rumen can rapidly hydrolyze triglycerides to free fatty acids, and, then, dehydrogenate or unsaturate almost all saturated fatty acids
In most species, long chain fatty acids can be absorbed into the lymphatic system throughchylomicron, but, in chickens long chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the portal circulation through very low density lipoprotein or VLDL
acyl-CoA cannon get through the inner membrane of mitochondria, where B-oxidation takes place, thus, we need a "carnitine transport system" to utilize fatty acids.
"Polyunsaturated fatty acids" may have some beneficial effects on out cardiovascular system, but we just cannot forget that their double bonds are susceptible to oxidation on peroxidation, which may have some adverse effects on, e.g. aging process and some type of cancer
"papillae" in the reticulum and rumen are more like...villi and microvilli of the small intestine and they are increasing he surface area for absorption e.g., volatile fatty acids (VFA)
Some proteins can be converted to VFA (e.g., valeric,isobutyric,andisocaleric acids) by microbes, and those are a very important source of energy for the host.
Body fat of ruminants tends to be more saturated because microbes can saturate 70 to 90 unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen, which can be incorporated into their body directly.
It is not surprising that a deficiency of Na can have some adverse effects on the efficiency of utilization of some vitamins such as thiamine and vitamin C because of Na's involvement's in the active transport of some nutrients.
A double exchange mechanism? well it refers to active absorption of Na and Cl, which involves cation exchange between Cl and bicarbonate on one side and anion exchange between Na and hydrogen on the other side.
"strict: salt restriction may not have much of the beneficial effects on alleviating hyperextension because it may result in only about 5% reduction in blood pressure, even in so called hyperextensive subjects i.e., folks with greater than 140/90 mmHg
Mannose is an aldopentose in mannans and it can be converted to glucose, thus, it can be an important pentose for nonruminant species
Unlike lactose, galactose in "raffiose, stachyose, and berbascose" are joined by an a-galactoside linkage,which can be split only by microbal enzyme
A supplementation with B-glucanase has some positive effects on barley-based diets partly because it may reduce the formation of vicious solution in the gastrointestinal tract.
Perhaps we can put an equal sign between "digestibility and nutritional value of a feedstuff" simply because to a large extent absorption and utilization may have nothing to do with any inherent feature of the feedstuff in question
"Omega (w)-3 or w-6 fatty acid?" Well, simply methy carbon is known as the w-carbon and if a particular fatty acid as the first double bond between 3&4 or 6&7 carbons from the methyl end, it would be called w-3 or w-6 fatty acid respecfully
Well, "polyunsaturated fatty acids" may have some beneficial effects on our e.g., cardiovascular system, but we just cannot forget that their saturated bonds are susceptible to auto oxidation per oxidation, thus they may increase a chance of getting some type of cancer!
unsaturated bond are susceptible
It is assumed that most lipids are delivered to the duodenum without any changes in the nonruminant species, but, in the ruminant species, most saturated fatty acids are dehydrogenated or unsaturated by microbes before leaving the rumen,
-microbes sature unsaturated FA
The most important factor in digestion of long chain fatty acids seems to be the formation of mixed micelle, which seems to be affected by among others, chain length, unsaturation, saturation, the ratio of unsaturation to saturation and esterfication of fatty acids
"Alpha-tocopherol, which is the most widely didtributed and the most important vitamin E, can donate H to stabalize, e.g., a peroxide and it does become "radical" in the process. But with the presence of some oxidizing agents such as vitamin C, it can be converted back to a-tocopherol... this, can be utilized again!
As we mentiond, vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids may be involved in stabalizing cell membranes i.e., methyl groups of vitamin E can fit into the pockets created by cis double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids, which can be important in the synthesis of arachidonic acid derivative.
"Selenium" exists in several states and in nonruminant species there are some differences in absorption rate among Se with various state. Bt it may not make any difference in ruminant species because microbes can chance those to highly soluble compounds in the rumen.
- change to insoluble compounds ( not highly)
The rate limiting step in choline synthesis in young birds seems to be the initial carboxylation process, But, after 8 weeks or so, they dont ahve any problem in synthesizing choline, thus, they are not likely to develop "choline deficiency"
The addition of lipids to a diet can improve the utilization of dietary energy greatly. Believe it or not, often, and essential energy value of feedstuff such as metabolizable energy can exceed its gross energy value.
strict salt restriction may not have beneficial effects on alleviating hyperextention because it may result in only about 5% reeducation in blood pressure in hyperextensive subjects whereas it does not have any effect on those with normal blood pressure
Net effects of aldosterone? It can increase Na retenation in the INTRACELLULAR fluid and increase K excretion which can lead to K deficiency under stressful conditions.
Although we should also consider Ca, Mg, P and S we can use a simpler formula Na+K-Cl to determine the electrolyte balance because Na is the primary cation in INTRACELLULAR fluid, K is the primary cation in EXTRACELLULAR fluid and Cl is the primary anion in water.
It seems that a typical corn-soybean meal diets contain sufficient goitrogens to increase he size of thyroid5-to6-fold. Fortunately, including normal amounts of iodized salt and dicalsium phosphate may satisfy the pigs iodine requirement. Poultry? Iodized sat and dicalsium phosphate alone may not be enough to satisfy their requirement.
Fructose is the sweetest sugar and also its absorption rate is low compared with other sugars. So we should eat more fruits to satisfy our craving for sweets but we should rememeber that there are a lot of variations among fruits in the fructose content.