Flashcards in Final 2 Deck (62):
• We can destroy some anti-nutritional factors in feedstuffs by heat treatment. But if we apply too much heat, we may end up with “heat-damaged protein” or protein with low AA availability because of
Malliard or browing reaction
• When we express the rate of protein synthesis in terms of total protein, it is called _________ which is greater for metabolically active organs
fractional rate of synthesis
_________is considered as a metabolically active form of pyridoxine (or vit B6), but pyridoxamine phosphate PMP is also biologically active.
Pyridoxal phosphate PLP
• Essentially all natural proteins contain L-form of AA. Thus, for the D-form to be active, it must be converted to the L-form by the process of _______
• Two AA,____________do not have D-AA oxidases and also those AA do not have means to incorporate ammonia. Thus, their D-isomers, ketoacids or hydoxy analogs cannot be utilized by animals.
lysine and threonine
• “Vitamin B 12” might be especially important for ruminant species because it is a component of methyl malonyl-coA isomerase, which is necessary for utilization of
• Currently, we have four feed-grade crystalline AA that can be used for commercial production of food animals. Interestingly, Met & Trp are the most toxic AA and _____________are the least toxic AAs
lysine and threonine
• Pigs and poultry need AA, not ‘protein’ per se. But we can use the protein value to express their requirement for the N component under certain situations such as using______________(pigs depend on diets for 10 indispensible AA and suff. Amts of nonspecific N to syn dispensible AA)
corn-soy or ideal protein source.
• As we mentioned, the requirement for protein can be expressed in many ways (ex. %, g/Mcal DE) but the primary objective of all those approaches would be to ensure _________
adequate daily nutrient/energy intake.
• We can express an energy value in terms of GE, DE, ME, and NE and it seems that GE->NE the energy value is progressively _________rather than inherent features of a feed ingredient or diet.
the animal and other factors
• For poultry, it is common to use _______________which is corrected for both urinary and endogenous energy, in expressing the energy req or energy content of feed.
true metabolizable energy
• Although the energy requirement for fat or protein disposition is similar, we often hear ‘fat is more expensive than depositing lean’. Why? Because of the different in deposition of______in lean tissues
_______is considered the oldest vitamin and along with riboflavin and niacin, it plays an important role in CAC in decarb and transketoloase rxns. (def is beriberi-loss of appetite and edema)
• Function of riboflavin are enzymes that function aerobically are called oxidases whereas anaerobically are called
• One of the indispensable AA_____can be converted to niacin. With a high protein diet, niacin supplement is not necessary. But you must remember that particular one of the limiting AA in practical diets. (Trypotphan forms serotonic, is a vasoconstrictor, and forms melatonin)
• Consuming too many raw eggs, ‘egg white injury’ or biotin deficiency because______is found in egg white and bound to biotin in 1:1 ration. Bound biotin is not available to animals
To maximize______in pigs, we have to provide about 0.10% more Ca than needed to maximize performance. (perhaps applicable to other nonruminant species too)
• Calcium and P (2:1 ratio) are primary components of the inorganic portion of bone. “young or immature bones” contain more tricalcium phosphate, and mature bones contain more______
• Many hormones are involved in bone metabolism, but ____is especially. Its adequacy can result in dwarfism, and excess can cause giantism.
• Zinc is a component of many metallo-enzymesa and it can activate many enzymes. Most well known deficiency of Zn is
: it seems that ‘antibodies or immunoglobins” can be taken up by the epithelial cell thru absorption and endocytosis, and then they are absorbed into circulation via lymphatic system by a reverse process of endo or exocytosis.
: For protein synthesis, we should remember that we need all 10 indispensable AA in adequate amts simultaneously, and also the process of protein synthesis is not exact, ie many mistakes can take place during the process, thus increasing energy expenditure.
it seems that deaminated AA are not efficient source of energy compared with carbs or fats, and their values maybe only ½ the assumed energy value.
if glucogenic AA can be converted to glucose, the conversion rate might be high for some AA and low for others, depending on the # of steps in the process.
L-glutamate is the only AA in mammalian tissues that can undergo non-oxidative deamination at an appreciable rate. And perhaps that’s the reason an Amino group of most AA is transferred to alpha-ketoglutarate by the transmination process.
We mentioned a story on ‘generalized convulsions’ among infants that made vitamin B6 a household name back in the 50s. Well thiamin is involved in the synthesis of gamma-amino butyric acid, which is a synaptic transmitter agent, and its reduction can lead to neural hyperexcitability!
mentioned a story on ‘generalize convulsions’ among infants that made B6 a name in th 50s. Well, pyridoxine is involved in synthesis of gamma-amino butyric acid, which is a snaptic transmitter agent, and its reduction can lead to neural hyperexcitability!
As you know, poultry excrete N as uric acid, which can be synthesized from Gln, Glyc, and Asp. But, our urine contains small amt of uric acid bc it is the end product of purine metabolism.
as you know, poultry excrete N as uric acid, which is synthesized from Gln, Gly, and Asp under the control of L-AA oxidase. But, our urine also contains a small amount of uric acid because it is the result of purine metabolism.
it is interesting that drugs can inhibit folacin-dependent enzymes used for cancer chemotherapy in humans! Why? Well fast growing cells such as cancer cells have a great need for folacin.
Although most species need 10 indispensible AA, chickens, turkeys and others need either Met or Cys in addition to those 10 AA.
what do we mean by protein quality? Simply refers to amt and ratio or balance of indispensible AA present in feed. &its possible we cannot satisfy the req for all, depending on protein quality of feedstuffs.
simply bc lysine is the first limiting AA in many nonruminant diets, we can satisfy all AA needs if formulate diet on lysine req even tho provide more AA than needed.
LCT lower critical temperature (animals must decrease heat production to maintain body temp.) and UCT means that above UCT, animals are heat stressed.
Thiaminase an antagonist for thiamin, can be found in raw fish but some animals that consume a lot of raw fish may not be adversely affected by this antagonist bc fish may have to undergo some putrefaction to release this particular enzyme.
chromium is a component of glucose tolerance factor, which can potentiate the action of insulin. But, Cr picolinate is not an effective source bc its not available in all animals.
- folic acid is involved in metabolism of 2-C units. Well, we might be able to say that pantothenic acid is involved in metabolism of 1-C unit?!
in many instances, protein synthetic rate is much higher than the protein req or accretion rate, and its possible that a major focus of protein synthesis is ‘replacing old, worn out tissues’ rather than depositing new proteins.
component of the urea cycle
biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine
component of tripeptide, gluthione, and produces taurine. Made by Methionine
decarboxylated to gamma-amniobutyric acis and the trasmination of AA
contributes 2 N atoms to purine
makes gluthathione, creatine, and purine, combines cholic acid
Vasodilator and meditates HCL and pepsin
synthesis of purine, pyrimidine ,shphinogomyelin ,ethanolamine, and choline
synthesize met from homocytsteine, choline from ethanolamine, and make purine bases adenine and guanine, deficiencies decrease NA sunthesis (swine/poultry defanemia)
Folacin, b12 and cobalt
increase mscle bcaa amino transferase in chicks.
antagonism decrease creatine synthesis, increase kidney and urea excretion
considers calidity, precision,proportion,costs, simplicity
choosing an assay
calcification of growing bones doesn’t take place normally. Osteomalacia happens to older. Osteoporosis is failure of normal bone metabolism in adults. Osteopenia- bone pathology. Ca or P in excess can cause deficiency of P mg fe I and zn and have adverse affects. Generally nontoxic though
increases bone resorbtion
increases Ca and P absorbtion and mobilizes it in bone
stimulates secretion. Decreases reabsorbtion of Ca and P. glucocoticoids are anti anabolic affects.
controls osteoblasts/clast activity
in collagen synthesis and protein matrix formation. Manganese involved in syn of chondroitin sulfate.
found in skeleton and activates alkaline phosphatase/normal growth and reproduction-def causes chicken impaired growth and perosis, swine decreased fat and weird growth.
interacts with Ca and activates many enzymes like arginase. Skin and wound healing and growth. Relationship with vitamin A. chickens def by delay growth, unnatural feather, short and thick bones, swine is parakeratosis.
inhibit excessive demineralization. Can be toxic and accumulate in bone and teeth. Thick soft bones, chalky brittle teeth.
elevate plasma for c & p mineralization. Similar deficiencies to Ca and P in animals. Toxic signs in swine- stiff and anorexic, lame. Vitamin e&D transport mechanism.
deficiencies failure of spermatogenesis, retained placent, rediced jatchability, bc or abnormal epithelium. Impair vision. Massive doses cause hyperirritability, malaise twitch, anorexia.