What is arable farming?
labour intensive farming which produced crops using basic tools including ploughs (pastoral farming is the farming of animals)
What is an enclosure?
a field with a fence around its perimeter so one crop could be produced on a larger scale or the field could be used for livestock
What was meant by engrossing?
the joining together of several farms to make one unit, usually through a process of one farmer buying up the land of the others – this usually led to families being evicted
Define ‘customs duty’
a tax on goods entering or leaving the country
What is tunnage?
Money coming from taxes on exports
What is poundage?
Money coming from taxes on imports
What is finishing (in reference to the wool industry)?
the final stages of woollen production when spun yarn is converted into cloth by weaving (includes: fulling [cleansing the wool to eliminate oil, dirt and other impurities] and dyeing it
the eldest son or nearest male relative inherited
What is meant by secular?
Something not connected with religious or spiritual matters
What is meant by a stipend?
a payment received by a priest for his appointment to a parish
What was a pluralist?
a churchman who takes on two parishes in order to claim two stipends
What is Humanism?
a system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters
What was a parliamentary sanction?
An official approval by Parliament of an action
What’s did an Act of Attainder do?
It declared a landowner guilty of rebelling against the monarch
Who took the role of Lord Chamberlain and what were his duties?
an experienced nobleman and member of the King’s council, a personal friend of the king; he had administrative and political duties, often speaking for the king in an official capacity and was also responsible for organising court ceremonies
What is a mercenary?
A hired soldier who offer their services to the highest bidder and have no specific commitment to the cause they are fighting for
What were Bonds of Good Behaviour
financial bonds paid by nobles or their families. This legal document in effect forced nobles to agree to behave loyally to the crown, or else they would face a ruinous fine
What was meant by Household Government?
Household Government - system of government where the head of the household, invariably male, had authority over the property, labour, and mobility of everyone living on his land
The Battle of Bosworth saw the end of which family’s rule and the start of the Tudor dynasty?
Name the two respets that weakened Henry’s claim to the throne
1) descent through the female line 2) became king through battle
Who proclaimed Henry King of England on the Battlefield of Bosworth?
Sir Thomas Stanley, Henry’s stepfather
How was Henry received in London after he became monarch? And why was he recieved in this way?
Cheering - because he was above scandal and suspicion unlike Richard who was under suspicion in the disappearance of the princes in the tower
Which characteristic of Henry’s personality proved to be useful as a future ruler?
To think like a fugitive
- Which two Yorkists had a far greater claim to the throne than Henry?
The Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth of York
How did Henry minimise the threat posed by these two persons?
The Earl of Warwick – was imprisoned in the tower
Elizabeth of York – married her
- How was Henry able to increase royal income through the use of the Act of Attainder?
Claiming the land of landowners who fought against him at Bosworth
What event in September 1489 consolidated Henry’s dynasty?
The birth of his heir - Arthur
What is a usurper?
someone who wrongfully takes someone else’s place on the throne
How did Lambert Simnel pose a threat to Henry’s rule in 1487?
Simnel was an imposter who was able to rally support against Henry whilst claiming to be the Earl of Warwick
How was Henry able to break Perkin Warbeck’s support?
Infiltrated his advisors – formed an alliance with the Scots by arranging a marriage between James iv and his daughter Margaret
Why would historian Christine Carpenter believe that the Perkin Warbeck imposture showed Henry’s consolidation of power at its most vulnerable?
Sir William Stanley – step uncle and Lord Chamberlain in Henry’s court was implicated in the plot to remove Henry from power.