Flashcards in Tumor Metabolism Deck (11):
after initial increase in glucagon, what is maintaining blood glucose?
prolonged increases in glucagon, what maintains blood glucose?
why is gluconeogenesis slower than glycogenolysis?
gluconeogenesis enzymes are induced, meaning they have to be transcribed and translated before they are active
what do tumors use for energy?
never switch to alternate fuel sources- not responsive to glucagon
how do surface tumor cells do metabolism?
how do deep tumor cells do metabolism?
tumor induced cytokines promote cachexia by activating muscle proteolysis and adipose lipolysis
what is cachexia?
unexplained weight loss
what is hypoxia inducing factor?
allows tumors to adapt to hypoxic conditions
switches surface cells to lactate usage by increasing GLUT1 transporters and inducing glycolytic enzymes to inhibit PDH-->forcing everything to lactate usage (takes lactate from cells under hypoxic conditions)
when does the brain switch to ketone body usage?
3 days after depletion of dietary glucose, shortly after depletion of body glycogen
how many ATPs are obtained from full oxidative phosphorylation? how many are obtained under anaerobic conditions?
aerobic- 30-32 depending on which shuttle is used
anaerobic- 2 from substrate level phosphorylation