Flashcards in Renal Disease and Failure Deck (25):
what is renal failure?
loss of kidney ability to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance
when does acute renal failure set in?
hours to days
when does chronic renal failure set in?
months to years
progresses slowly over time, affected parts can be compensated for by others
what happens to GFR with age?
what is the MDRD equation?
calculates GFR taking into consideration age and gender
what is oliguria?
urine flow based on minimal urine volumes necessary to maintain balance
what is anuria?
absent urine flow or less than 50ml per day
20-200 micfogram/min (30-300mg/day)
increased amount of nitrogenous wastes present in urine
fluid, electrolyte, and hormone imbalances and metabolic abnormalities associated with renal function deterioriation
what are biomarkers for acute kidney injury?
creatine- increases with decreased GFR
cystatin C- increases with decreased GFR
what are the causes of renal injury?
what are the responses of renal injury?
what are the classes of glomerular injury?
what is nephritis?
hypertension, microscopic hematuria**, oliguria, azotemia, RBC casts in urine
thickening of basement membrane
what is nephrosis?
more pronounced proteinuria
edema with low blood volume
low serum albumin
high serum cholesterol
leaker filtration slits
effacement (basement membrane separation)
what are the characteristics of glomerulosclerosis?
thicker basement membrane
increased protein permeability
what are the classes of acute renal failure?
what are the characteristics of prerenal acute kidney failure?
caused by decreased vascular perfusion
decreased cortical RBF
causes: hypovolemia, hypotension, impaired cardiac function, NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, liver disease, major surger
what is intrarenal acute kidney disease?
caused by glomerular, interstitial, tubular, or vascular injury
caused by: tubular necrosis
what is post renal acute kidney disease?
obstruction of urine outflow
caused by ureteral or bladder obstruction
what are characteristics of chronic renal failure?
permanent, large drop in GFR
increased plasma creatinine
decreased plasma ca and increased phosphate
most cases caused by diabetes and hypertension
what are secondary characteristics of chronic renal failure?