Renal Disease and Failure Flashcards Preview

Human Function- Exam 4 Material > Renal Disease and Failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Disease and Failure Deck (25):
1

what is renal failure?

loss of kidney ability to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance

2

when does acute renal failure set in?

hours to days
usually reversible

3

when does chronic renal failure set in?

months to years
progresses slowly over time, affected parts can be compensated for by others

4

what happens to GFR with age?

decreases

5

what is the MDRD equation?

calculates GFR taking into consideration age and gender

6

what is oliguria?

urine flow based on minimal urine volumes necessary to maintain balance

7

what is anuria?

absent urine flow or less than 50ml per day

8

microalbuminuria?

20-200 micfogram/min (30-300mg/day)

9

proteinuria?

>150mg/day

10

azotemia?

increased amount of nitrogenous wastes present in urine

11

uremia

fluid, electrolyte, and hormone imbalances and metabolic abnormalities associated with renal function deterioriation

12

what are biomarkers for acute kidney injury?

creatine- increases with decreased GFR
interleukins
cystatin C- increases with decreased GFR

13

what are the causes of renal injury?

ischemia
toxins
immune
sclerosis

14

what are the responses of renal injury?

inflammation
necrosis
apoptosis
fibrosis
sclerosis

15

what are the classes of glomerular injury?

nephritis
nephorsis

16

what is nephritis?

hypertension, microscopic hematuria**, oliguria, azotemia, RBC casts in urine
mild proteinuria
***inflammation***
thickening of basement membrane

17

what is nephrosis?

more pronounced proteinuria
edema with low blood volume
low serum albumin
high serum cholesterol
podocyte dysfunction
glomerular sclerosis/fibrosis
leaker filtration slits
effacement (basement membrane separation)

18

what are the characteristics of glomerulosclerosis?

thicker basement membrane
increased protein permeability
podocyte hypertrophy
effacement
increased ECF
mesangium degeneration

19

what are the classes of acute renal failure?

prerenal
intrarenal
postrenal

20

what are the characteristics of prerenal acute kidney failure?

caused by decreased vascular perfusion
decreased cortical RBF
causes: hypovolemia, hypotension, impaired cardiac function, NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, liver disease, major surger

21

what is intrarenal acute kidney disease?

caused by glomerular, interstitial, tubular, or vascular injury
often reversible
caused by: tubular necrosis
prolonged ischemia
nephrotoxins

22

what is post renal acute kidney disease?

obstruction of urine outflow
caused by ureteral or bladder obstruction

23

what are characteristics of chronic renal failure?

permanent, large drop in GFR
irreversible
increased plasma creatinine
small kidneys
decreased plasma ca and increased phosphate
protinuria
most cases caused by diabetes and hypertension

24

what are secondary characteristics of chronic renal failure?

protinuria***
phosphate retention
metabolic acidosis
anemia

25

what are treatments for chronic kidney failure?

treat primary cause
corticosteroids
ACE inhibitor, AT2 receptor blocker
low fat and cholesterol diet