Tumour Classification and Nomenclature Flashcards Preview

Year 2 EMS MoD > Tumour Classification and Nomenclature > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Classification and Nomenclature Deck (66):
1

What does histiogenic mean?

Formed by the tissue.
-i.e. the type of tissue tumours originate from

2

What are common histiogenic tumours?

-Epithelium
-Mesenchymal
-Melanocytes
-Blood
-CNS tumours

3

What are less common histiogenic tumours? (2)

-Germ cell tumour
-Embryonal tumour

4

What are the main types of surface epithelium? (2)

-Squamous
-Transitional

5

What are the main types of glandular epithelium? (3)

-Cuboidal
-Columnar
-Glandular

6

What is the main function of surface epithelium?

Protection.

7

What is the main function of glandular epithelium?

Secretion.

8

What is a papilloma?

A benign tumour of surface (non-glandular) epithelium.

9

What is an adenoma?

A benign tumour of glandular (secretory) epithelium.

10

What are the benign tumour exceptions? (4)

-Melanoma
-Lymphoma
-Seminoma
-Mesothelioma

11

How are benign tumours further identified?

SURFACE EPITHELIUM:
-by cell type of origin
-e.g. squamous cell

GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM:
-by glandular tissue of origin
-e.g. colonic

12

What would a benign tumour of squamous epithelium (e.g. skin) be called?

Squamous cell papilloma.

13

What a benign tumour of ductal epithelium of the pancreas be called?

Pancreatic cystadenoma.

14

RECAP: how are benign tumours from non-glandular surface epithelium named?

(Cell type)...papilloma.

15

RECAP: how are benign tumours from glandular / ductal surface epithelium named?

(Epithelium source)...adenoma.

16

What are malignant epithelial tumour called?

Carcinomas.

17

How are malignant epithelial tumours derived from surface epithelia named?

By prefixing 'carcinoma' with the cell of origin.
-e.g. squamous cell carcinoma

18

What are malignant epithelial tumours derived from glandular/ductal epithelia called?

ADENO-carcinomas.

19

RECAP: how are malignant tumours from non-glandular surface epithelium named?

(Cell type)...carcinoma.

20

RECAP: how are malignant tumours from glandular / ductal epithelium named?

(Epithelium source)...adenocarcinoma.

21

What suffix do all benign mesenchymal tumours have?

-oma.

22

What precede the suffix '-oma' for benign mesenchymal tumours?

Tissue / cell of origin.
-e.g. benign tumour of adipose tissue = LIPOMA

23

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for smooth muscle?

Leiomyo-

24

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is prefix for skeletal muscle?

Rhabdomyo-

25

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for adipose tissue?

Lipo-

26

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for blood vessels?

Angio-

27

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for bone?

Osteo-

28

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for cartilage?

Chondro-

29

Benign/maligant mesenchymal tumours: what is the prefix for fibrous tissue?

Fibro-

30

What are malignant mesenchymal tumour called?

Sarcomas.

31

What suffix do all malignant mesenchymal tumours have?

-sarcoma.

32

What precede the suffix '-oma' for malignant mesenchymal tumours?

Tissue / cell of origin.
-e.g. malignant tumour of adipose tissue = LIPO-sarcoma

33

What is a papilloma?

Benign surface (non-glandular) epithelium tumour.

34

What is an adenoma?

Benign glandular epithelium tumour.

35

What is a carcinoma?

Malignant surface (non-glandular) epithelium tumour.

36

What is an adenocarcinoma?

Malignant glandular epithelium tumour.

37

What type of tumour has the suffix -oma?

Benign mesechymal tumour.

38

What type of tumour has the suffix -sarcoma?

Malignant mesenchymal tumour.

39

What are melanocytes?

Melanin-producing cells in bottom layer of skin's epidermis.

40

What is melanocytic nevus?

A benign tumour of melanocytes.

41

What is melanoma?

A malignant tumour of melanocytes.
-associated with skin cancer

42

Name 3 types of malignant tumours of blood cells.

-Leukaemia
-Lymphoma
-Myeloma

43

What are the main CNS tumours? (5)

-Meningioma
-Astrocytoma
-Oligoendroglioma
-Ependymoma
-Medulloblastoma

44

What is meningioma?

A tumour arising from meningeal tissue of the brain.
-usually benign

45

What are astrocytomas?

Tumour originating in astrocytes (glial cells).
-does not normally spread outside CNS

46

What is an aggressive form of astrocytoma?

Glioblastoma multiforme.
-grade IV

47

What is oligoendroglioma

Tumour derived from oligodendrocytes.

48

What is ependymoma?

Tumour arising from ependyma tissue.

49

What is medulloblastoma?

Tumour of the primitive medullary tube.
-commonest 1* brain tumour in childhood

50

How are CNS tumours graded?

WHO grading (I-IV).

51

What are germ cells?

Cells that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.

52

Where do germ cell tumours commonly arise?

Gonads.

53

What are the main types of germ cell tumours? (2)

SEMINOMATOUS
-e.g. seminoma
NON-SEMINOMATOUS
-e.g. teratoma

54

What is a teratoma?

A tumour composed of tissues not normally present at the site.
-typically in gonads, e.g. teeth/hair/muscle

55

When do embryonal tumours develop?

56

What do embryonal tumours bear histological resemblance to?

Embryonic cells of that organ.

57

What is an embryonal tumour in the eye called?

Retinoblastoma.

58

What is an embryonal tumour in the kidney called?

Nephroblastoma.

59

What is an embryonal tumour in the adrenal medulla / nerve ganglia called?

Neuroblastoma.

60

What is an embryonal tumour in the liver called?

Hepatoblastoma.

61

Where is a pleomorphic salivary adenoma, and is it benign or malignant?

Salivary glands.
-benign

62

Is a carcinosarcoma of the ovaries benign or malignant?

Malignant.

63

Where is a mesothelioma?

Mesothelium.
-squamous cell membrane lining many body cavities

64

What are the main MALIGNANT tumours with BENIGN names? (4)

-Melanoma
-Mesothelioma
-Myeloma
-Lymphoma

65

What is a hamartoma?

Non-neoplastic / benign overgrowth of normal tissue.
-exhibits uncontrolled growth
-often mistaken for malignancy

66

What is a choristoma?

Nodules of organ parenchyma in another organ.
-AKA heterotropic rests
-e.g. pancreas nodule in stomach