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Flashcards in Tuttle-base Deck (112)
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1

What are modalities that cause deep heating?

US
SWD
MWD

2

What are modalitites that cause superficial heating?

Hydrocolator
IR
UV
Parrifin
Whirlpool
LVG

3

What modalities are non-heat producing?

Sine wave stim.
Pulsed US therapy
Pulsed SWD
IF
HVG
EMS
TENS
MENS

4

List the tissues from best conductor to worse conductor

Muscle - 72-75% water
Fat -14% water
Nerves - 5-16% water
Bones - 5-16%
Skin - 5-16%

5

What are the physiological effects of heat?

Increased metabolic rate (BMR)
Increased capillary flow & filtration
Increased nutrient supply to tissue
Increased WBC & phagocytic activity
Increased local perspiration rate
Increased lymph flow along w/ blood flow

6

What are specific local effects of heat?

Increased threshold to pain receptors (analgesia)
Superficial BT(?) increase doesn't mean deep BT(?) increase
Increased pain threshold of peripheral nerves
Decrease muscle spindle response to stress-relaxes myospasm

7

What are systemic effects of heat?

General increased perspiration via hypothalamus mechanism
Increased cardiac output & blood flow
Increased plasma volume
Decreased diastole blood pressure
Increased renal filtration --> increased urine loss

8

What advantage does moist heat have over dry heat?

More penetration
Low skin resistence

9

What are the 4 types of energy transfer?

Conduction
Convection
Conversion
Radiation

10

Type of energy transfer that requires physical contact, i.e. one warm body next to a cool body. Hot moist pack, ice pack, paraffin, etc.

Conduction

11

Type of energy transfer that requires a medium for transfer (air, water, etc.). Paraffin, whirlpool, etc.

Convection

12

Type of energy transfer that transforms one form of energy into another form of energy. US

Conversion

13

Type of energy transfer that uses heat through space w/o aid of media. UV, IR

Radiation

14

What are four types of hydrotherapy?

Regular whirlpool
Hubbard tanks - whole body immersion
Sitz bath
Contrast bath - residual bath (start w/ heat & end w/ heat)

15

What temp range is considered cold?

55-65f

16

What temp range is considered cool?

65-80f

17

What temp range is considered tepid?

80-93f

18

What temp range is considered warm?

93-98f

19

What temp range is considered hot?

98-105f

20

What temp range is considered very hot?

105-115f

21

What temp range is considered scalding?

>120f

22

What are contraindications for whirlpool?

Heart disease
Past cerebral vascular accident
Acute circulatory disease
Bladder & bowel dysfunction

23

What are methods of cooling?

Conduction
Convection
Evaporation

24

What are contraindications of cryotherapy?

Raynaud's
Hypersensitive to cold
Frost bite

25

What are the physiological effects of cryotherapy?

Decrease blood flow & muscle spasm
Vasoconstriction

26

If you tx w/ cryotherapy for longer than 20 mins what happens?

Hunting Reflex

27

What is the tx protocol for ice massage?

Time - 3-5mins
Speed 4" per second

28

What is the order of sensation felt w/ cryotherapy?

CBAN
Cool
Burn
Aching
Numbness

29

What are the two types of vapocoolant spray?

Flourimethane (tuttle's spelling) - nonflammable, nontoxic, nonexplosive, not a general anesthetic
Ethyl Chloride - Flammable, toxic, explosive, can cause temporary blindness, local anesthetic

30

What are the 3 general effects of US?

Chemical
Physical
Thermal