Flashcards in Tuttle-base Deck (112)
What are modalities that cause deep heating?
What are modalitites that cause superficial heating?
What modalities are non-heat producing?
Sine wave stim.
Pulsed US therapy
List the tissues from best conductor to worse conductor
Muscle - 72-75% water
Fat -14% water
Nerves - 5-16% water
Bones - 5-16%
Skin - 5-16%
What are the physiological effects of heat?
Increased metabolic rate (BMR)
Increased capillary flow & filtration
Increased nutrient supply to tissue
Increased WBC & phagocytic activity
Increased local perspiration rate
Increased lymph flow along w/ blood flow
What are specific local effects of heat?
Increased threshold to pain receptors (analgesia)
Superficial BT(?) increase doesn't mean deep BT(?) increase
Increased pain threshold of peripheral nerves
Decrease muscle spindle response to stress-relaxes myospasm
What are systemic effects of heat?
General increased perspiration via hypothalamus mechanism
Increased cardiac output & blood flow
Increased plasma volume
Decreased diastole blood pressure
Increased renal filtration --> increased urine loss
What advantage does moist heat have over dry heat?
Low skin resistence
What are the 4 types of energy transfer?
Type of energy transfer that requires physical contact, i.e. one warm body next to a cool body. Hot moist pack, ice pack, paraffin, etc.
Type of energy transfer that requires a medium for transfer (air, water, etc.). Paraffin, whirlpool, etc.
Type of energy transfer that transforms one form of energy into another form of energy. US
Type of energy transfer that uses heat through space w/o aid of media. UV, IR
What are four types of hydrotherapy?
Hubbard tanks - whole body immersion
Contrast bath - residual bath (start w/ heat & end w/ heat)
What temp range is considered cold?
What temp range is considered cool?
What temp range is considered tepid?
What temp range is considered warm?
What temp range is considered hot?
What temp range is considered very hot?
What temp range is considered scalding?
What are contraindications for whirlpool?
Past cerebral vascular accident
Acute circulatory disease
Bladder & bowel dysfunction
What are methods of cooling?
What are contraindications of cryotherapy?
Hypersensitive to cold
What are the physiological effects of cryotherapy?
Decrease blood flow & muscle spasm
If you tx w/ cryotherapy for longer than 20 mins what happens?
What is the tx protocol for ice massage?
Time - 3-5mins
Speed 4" per second
What is the order of sensation felt w/ cryotherapy?
What are the two types of vapocoolant spray?
Flourimethane (tuttle's spelling) - nonflammable, nontoxic, nonexplosive, not a general anesthetic
Ethyl Chloride - Flammable, toxic, explosive, can cause temporary blindness, local anesthetic