Types Of Formula Flashcards Preview

A-Level Chemistry // Organic > Types Of Formula > Flashcards

Flashcards in Types Of Formula Deck (30):
1

General formula

An algebraic formula that can describe any member of a family of compounds.

2

Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound

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Molecular formula

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

4

Structural formula

Shows the atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogens and functional groups

5

Skeletal formula

Shows the ones of the carbon skeleton only, with any functional groups. The hydrogen and carbon atoms aren't shown.

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Displayed formula

Shows how all the atoms are arranged, and all the bonds between them

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Homologous series

series of compounds (hydrocarbons) with the same general formula and functional group and similar chemical properties

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what can be used in general formulas to work out molecular formula

homologous compounds

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functional group

reactive part of a molecule

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homologous series - table

alkanes -ane
branched alkanes -alkyl
alkenes - ene
halogenoalkanes fluoro-/chloro-/bromo-/iodo-
alcohols -ol
aldehydes --al
ketones -one
carboxylic acids - oic acids
esters - oate-
amines - amine
amides - amide
acyl chloride -oyl chloride
cycloalkanes - cycle/ -ane
arenes -benezene

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what do isomers have

the same molecular formula but differently arranged atoms

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there are two types of isomers you need to know

-structural isomers
-stereoisomers

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structural isomers

different structural arrangements of atoms

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three types of structural isomers

chain - diff arrangements of the carbon skeleton. some are straight chains and others branched in different ways

positional - same skeleton and the same atoms or groups of atoms attached. the difference is the atom or group of atoms is attached to a different carbon atom

functional - same atoms arranged into different functional group

15

general formula of cyclocalkane

CnH2n

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why are cycloalkanes saturated

The saturated hydrocarbons not only form only carbon-to-hydrogen bonds, rather than the carbon-to-carbon bonds that have to then have added hydrogen atoms.These alkanes have to prefix "cyclo" due to the configuration of rings of carbon atoms in their structure

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cyclopropane

C3H6 - ch2, ch2, h2c

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cyclobutane

C4H8 - h2c, ch2, ch2, h2c

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cyclopentane

C5H10 h2c, ch2, ch2, h2c, h2c

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cyclohexane

C6H12 h2c, ch2, ch2, ch2, h2c, h2c

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stem - number of carbons

1 - meth
2 - eth
3 - prop
4 - but
5 - pent
6 - hex
7- hept

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what part of the molecule gives you the end name

main functional group

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IUPAC rules

1. the agreed International language of chemistry. Organic compounds used to be given whatever names but that caused confusion.
2. the iupac system means scientific ideas can be communicated across the globe more effectively

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alkene formula

CnH2n

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alkenes

ethene c2h4 eth-1-ene
propene c3h6 prop-?-ene
butene c4h8 but-?-ene
pentene c5h10 pent-?-ene

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E/Z isomers are also known as

geometric isomerism

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what do alkenes have

restricted rotation around the carbon-carbon double bonds.
means if both double bond carbons have different atoms or groups attached, the arrange,emt of those groups around the double bond are important (get two stereoisomers).

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Z-isomer

the same side

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E-isomer

opposite side

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what do you use when groups are different for E/Z isomerism to still work

cahn-ingold-prelog priority rules (CIP)