Types of Solutions Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Unit 3/4- Stoichiometry and Solutions > Types of Solutions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Types of Solutions Deck (27):
1

Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
 - uniform throughout
- can have different compositions unlike pure substances such as different ratios of solute to solvent

2

solvent

is any substance that has another substance 
dissolved in it. (usually in the largest amount)

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solute

is a substance dissolved in the solvent.

4

aqueous solutions

water is the solvent

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Miscible liquids

can be combined in any proportion, they are 
readily dissolvable. i.e. Any amount of water dissolves in any 
amount of ethanol and any amount of ethanol dissolves in any 
amount of water. Anything miscible must always be LIQUID!

6

immiscible liquids

liquids that do not dissolve easily

7

saturated solutions

formed when no more solute can dissolve

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unsaturated solutions

more solute can dissolve

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supersaturated solution

solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. A change in temperature can cause a saturated solution to become supersaturated. solids dissolved in water become supersaturated when cooled. most solutions of a gas in liquid become supersaturated when heated.

10

why are supersaturated solutions unstable?

- Because the solute in a supersaturated solution is present in a concentration higher than the equilibrium concentration
- if a crystal of a solute is added to a supersaturated liquid solution of the solute, the excess solute will precipitate, leaving the solution saturated. also, a disturbance in a supersaturated solution of a vapour in air can cause the vapour to condense into droplets.

11

sparingly soluble

when the solubility is between 0.1g and 1g in 100ml of solvent.

12

insoluble

less than 0.1 gram of solute will dissolve per 100 ml of solvent (usually water)

13

water properties

is polar so it can dissolve ions (ionization)

14

colloids

compounds suspended in things are not solutions since the solvent has not been able to dissolve the compound.

15

insoluble compound... saturated?

an insoluble compound can be saturated because it will be all the solute it can take

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Supersaturated solids in liquid

- saturated solutions of a solid dissolved in water become supersaturated when cooled.

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supersaturated gas in a liquid

Increasing the temperature for a solution that contains dissolved gas molecules provides energy for the gas molecules to escape. This is why the solubility decreases when you heat the solution

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aqueous solution

solution with water

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solid solid:

steel

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solid liquid:

seawater

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solid dissolved in gas:

gases that separate from a mothball

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- liquid in solid

liquids dissolved in wax that make it easier to apply

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- liquid in liquid:

antifreeze for cars

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- liquid in gas:

humidity results from water dissolving in air

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- gas in solid:

ice has dissolved air

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- gas in liquid

pop

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- gas in gas

air!