Acids and Bases Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Unit 3/4- Stoichiometry and Solutions > Acids and Bases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acids and Bases Deck (27):
1

Acids

have H+ ions in front. have low pH

2

Bases

Bases don’t have to HAVE OH. They should be able to PRODUCE OH- somehow: directly or indirectly. have high pH. a base is a substance that can remove a proton from an acid

3

Hydronium

h+ ions react very quickly with water to produce H3O which is hydronium

4

the "proton" that bases remove

h+ because H+ is basically one proton since Hydrogen only naturally has one electron and no neutrons.

5

strong base

drano, window cleaner and dish soap

6

strong acids

HCL, HBR, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HCLO4

7

square brackets

automatically means concentration in mol/L.

8

to find concentration using pH

10^-pH.

9

Arrhenius acids and bases

an acid is a substance that produces H+ ions while dissolved in water while bases produce OH- ions while dissolved in water

10

Arrhenius theory proves that

- acids increase the concentration of H+ in aqueous solution, while bases increase the concentration of OH- in aqueous solution
- therefore, all acids must contain Hydrogen as a source of H+ while bases must contain an OH- group as a source of OH-

11

Arrhenius theory is useful is

- you are looking at the ions that result when an acid or base undergoes a neutralization reaction to form an ionic compound and water

12

problems with arrhenius theory

- H+ can't exist alone in an aqueous solution
- water is polar so the H+ from acids must interact with water (it produces Hydronium)
- it can't explain why ammonia and several other substances react with water to produce a base, not an acid despite not having an OH- group
- can't explain why salts containing carbonate ions have basic properties
- can't explain reactions that take place in non-polar organic solvents, only those in water

13

B-L theory

an acid is a substance from which a proton (H+) can be removed. a base is a substance that can remove a proton from an acid
- acids must contain a hydrogen in formula (Arrhenius acids= BL acids)
- any negative ion (not just OH) can be a BL base
- water doesn't have to be the only solvent
- one substance must provide a proton and another substance must receive the same proton therefore an acid base reaction involved the transfer of a proton
- any substance can be an acid as long as another substance behaves as a base

14

Conjugate acid base pairs (BL theory)

Acid: same chemical formula on other side of eqn but it has lost a hydrogen becoming the conjugate base
base: came chem formula on other side of eqn but it has gained a hydrogen therefore conjugate acid

15

strong and weak acids

strong ones ionize/disassociate completely in water. weak ones don't do this completely

16

ionization vs. disassociation

ionization: process of forming an ion. acids ionize because they are molecular compounds
dissociation: process in which ions break apart when dissolved in solution. bases are ionic compounds so they disassociate

17

pH scale

power of hydrogen. every unit is a scale of 10 ex 2 -7 is difference of 10^7

18

hydronium and bL theory

- only in this theory since they found out that H+ can't exist by itself in water

19

in any aqueous solution

both hydronium and hydroxide ions exist

20

in pure water

hydronium = hydroxide with a pH and pOH of 7

21

in acidic solutions

more hydronium than OH

22

in basic solutions

more OH than H3O

23

pH + pOH

= 14

24

[H3O+][OH-]

1x 10^-14

25

titration

- To determine the concentration of a particular solute in a solution
- This procedure involves combining a solution of unknown concentration with a reagent solution of known concentration, called a standard solution

26

equivalence point

The point at which stoichiometrically equivalent quantities are brought together

27

end point

the point of colour change (turns pink in basic solutions indicating that the neutralization reaction is complete) is called the end point