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Flashcards in U1T2 - Factfiles Deck (157)
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What is the purpose of the design stage?

To produce a systems specification. Document includes detail on certain design components.


What should the document in the design stage include?

Data capture methods + forms for system, data inputs + outputs for system (screen designs, report specifications, query designs, storyboards, macros), data processing within system, data structures (database structure, data models, DFDs, normalisation), user interface (screen layouts, buttons, error messages), hardware used to run new system, detailed design of user interface, switchboard, menus), test plan, program code listings + hardware + software config.


What is the purpose of development?

Develop the software package required for info system. Programming code must be produced/features of software package must be developed, data
structures, data checking procedures + user
interface. Must also be evidence of effective use of hardware specification.


What is the purpose of testing?

Ensure system works as described in system specification + is high quality. Should be able to demonstrate all parts/functions of solution work as expected, irrespective of data input. Errors + limitations identified + corrected. Test plan is devised including range of test data ensures it's structured.


What is a storyboard?

Diagram which shows planned sequence of screen displays in user interface. May be branching diagram showing diff paths available to user. Visual aid, helps with test plan.


What is prototyping?

Involves building a working model/first cut of new system. Gives user 'look + feel' experience. User can eval + give feedback to systems analyst. Analyst can make changes + return to user who evals. Means better quality, identify issues early, end user involved, fulfils requirements, saves cost + trains. Process continues as refinements made. Results in fully working system (Evolutionary Prototyping) or produces set of user requirements (Throw-away Prototyping)


How is a system developed with throw away prototyping?

Using alt approach e.g. waterfall method. Prototype produced.


What are 3 diff quality indicators?

Suitability, usability + effectiveness.


What are some suitability questions in terms of quality indicators?

Does system meet all objectives, is it fit for purpose, does system provide required functionality, is it compatible with existing tech/hardware/software/data + is it robust/free from errors?


What are some usability questions in terms of quality indicators?

How fast can user learn to use UI, is UI intuitive, does UI match user's level of IT competence, how well can user transfer skills + what training required?


What are some effectiveness questions in terms of quality indicators?

Does system perform tasks efficiently + has it been designed to facilitate maintenance, has it delivered promised improvements?


What is system testing?

Making sure system works as described in spec. Follows test plan to test each individual functions works with extreme/invalid data. Ensures system produces correct results for data input.


What is alpha/application testing?

Carried out in-house by members of IT development team e.g. programmers. Includes module, integration + system testing whereby software is tested against module + system specs.


What is beta testing?

Takes place after alpha testing. Software given to number of potential users in pre-release version. Users agree to test system in realistic environment + give feedback to developer.


What is acceptance testing?

Testing software by end user in live environment with real data volumes to ensure it meets user requirements. Feedbacks issues to developer. Gets agreement between user and developer. Proves to customer that system works.


What is the test plan?

Produced at design stage. Detailed document which is used by group of testers. Includes ref to part of system to be tested, test data to be entered + result expected. Testers records if successful/not. Test teams must follow test plan. If expected result doesn't occur, modified. Data that checks validation rules should be included. Should be created early. Created by analyst. Programmer performs it. Hardware, software + procedures should be tested.


What are the 3 categories of test data?

Normal Data (Includes data that program will accept)
Extreme Data (Includes data on acceptability limits)
Exceptional Data (Data when entered invalid + not accepted)


Describe what led to the software crisis.

Created when hardware developments (RAM speed, processing power) were growing at much faster speed than software developments. As comp tech more complicated, organisations demanding more complex problems to be solved. Programmers struggled to keep pace with developments.


When did the software crisis become evident?

Projects ran over budget, were delivered late (if at all) + inefficient software. Low quality software which didn't meet user's needs. Projects were difficult to manage + codes difficult to maintain. Also impacted maintenance of older software which needed to be adapted to new user requirements. Programmers must spend more time maintaining older software. Expensive to create new software so reluctant to do so. Inadequate documentation.


What are productivity tools

Generic software purchased and tailored to meet user's needs. e.g. Microsoft 365.


Why might new software have to be produced?

Current system may not be suitable for purpose as requirements may have changed/business may
have expanded.
Current system may be too inflexible/expensive to maintain.
Tech support for old system may not be available/available but expensive.
Tech developments could make current system outdated.
Advances in hardware + OS's may require it as may not support old system.


What does a computer consist of?

User interface allowing data requiring processing to be entered + outputs results.


What does a user interface allow?

Allows user to interact with computer + software


What is a process?

Activity carried out as part of computer system.
Takes data in form of raw facts + figures + produces info in report.


What does a systems analyst do?

Analyses data processing requirements of organisation
+ documents findings. Conduct feasibility study to find whether system should be computerised
+ which solution suitable + draw up the systems
spec. If fault found during testing reflecting system design then analyst corrects the fault. May have little knowledge of how organisation works.


What is the systems specification?

Criteria against which system testing should be evaluated leading to implementation of system.


What does a programmer do?

Writes source code using programming language. Written from module specs. When program
produced, programmer develops test plan + tests it. If bugs present, then programmer debugs it. To allow further development, they produce technical documentation which is used during maintenance stage. Shouldn't write user guides.


What does the project manager do?

Oversees development new system development, schedules project, manages budget, allocated resources (human, hardware + software), monitors progress, identifies + responds to risk + reports back to clients as project progresses.


What is the main point in analysis?

Investigate problems within an information system. Solution to problem can be improvements
within existing system/creation of new info system.


During analysis, what does a systems analyst do?

Investigate present system to establish user requirements. Must understand business purpose + existing system in terms of inputs, processing + outputs. Includes constraints for new system (timescale, cost,
existing hardware + software + staff capability)