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Flashcards in U3AOS2 - Managing Employees Deck (152)
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business objectives

stated, measurable goals that the business wants to achieve
- plans are created to achieve them
- a business has many stakeholders but employees are one of the most critical assets a business has to achieve their objectives


responsibility for staffing

- when the business is small the manager or owner is responsible for staffing
- as the business grows a specific human resources department may be established to create more standardised policies, procedures and practices for managing the employment cycle
- this gives managers more time to direct the business to achieving the vision or mission statement


relationship between objectives and managing employees

- when a effective relationships exist between management and the employees the business is in a better position to achieve their objectives
- having a business properly staffed with the right people can be a challenge
- employees need adequate training
- employee's goals need to be in line with business objectives
- measuring performance keeps employees on track to achieve their goals


management by objectives

where an organisation aligns the objectives of employees with overall business goals
- the goals are set with the employee and manager working together
- performance can be measured against these goals
- employees who have an understanding of the objectives will be more engaged in their work



motivation is the willingness of a person to expend energy and effort in doing a job or task
- when a manager understands what motivates employees they will be in a better to encourage employees when they need to
- complex as individuals are all motivated differently


HR manages the following areas...

- recruitment and selection
- remuneration and benefits
- training and development
- workplace relations


theories of motivation

four drive
maslow's theory
lock and latham's theory


maslow's theory

provides a five stage understanding of motivation
- for someone to advance from their previous level their current level needs must be met
- include the lower level extrinsic needs, such as physiological, safety and security needs being met first before satisfying the higher order intrinsic needs, such as social, self-esteem and self-actualisation needs
- each level of need acts as a motivator for employees until it has been met by the employer // once it is achieved it no longer motivates.


levels of maslow's hierarchy

1. physiological needs
2. safety needs
3. social needs
4. self esteem needs
5. self actualisation needs


physiological needs

- basic needs such as food, water, air and shelter
- providing the employee with the job and payment for the job


safety needs

- security and protection from harm
- creating job security, ensuring employees have safe and healthy work activities, superannuation and insurance as well as compliant and fair management


social needs

- love, belonging, affection, affiliation, acceptance and friendship
- friendly work associates, organised employee activities


self esteem needs

- external needs of status, recognition and attention
- internal needs of self-respect, autonomy and achievement
- promotion, good performance management rating, pay linked to status and increased responsibilities


self actualisation needs

- ultimate need; personal growth, achieving one's potential
- self fulfillment and creative potential
- challenging wok, participative decision making, opportunities for growth


lock and latham

states individuals and teams are more motivated, focused and work better when they have clear goals
- gives five principles for setting goals


lock and latham five principles




goals need to be clear and specific
don't mention SMART goals - EVER
allows for measurability



- employees were more motivated when the goals were challenging
- challenging should extend employees but not too complex that they can't achieve it



- the more committed an employee is the more likely they are to achieve the goal set for them
- managers and employees should set the goals together



- feedback needs to be constructive to help employees' maintain motivation
- it can also provide motivation to improve performance



- the task should be interesting and varied
- employees should have the skills to achieve the goals
- training and support should be provided


four drive theory

the theory that the basic motivational needs that everyone needs are shared to an extent and can be broken down into different drives


four drive theory aspects

drive to acquire
drive to bond
drive to learn
drive to defend


drive to acquire

basic and complex need (complex for status / basic for necessities of survival)
- can be enforced by developing a reward system or offering best performers advancement // rewarding employees with praise, recognition and interesting assignments


drive to bond

people need to connect and bond with each other; can be enforced by:
- developing and maintaining a culture that creates a strong sense of 'team spirit', collaboration, openness and friendship
- encouraging teamwork and adopting a people focused management style
- recognise and acknowledge personal milestones and achievements


drive to learn

people want to make sense of the world around them and comprehend it; this is enforced by:
- designing jobs that are satisfying and challenging as well as varied and engaging
- managers should ensure jobs in their areas of responsibility are meaningful and interesting


drive to defend

stems from a natural desire to defend yourself, family etc; this is enforced by:
- creating a fair, transparent and trustworthy process to overcome fear and the need to defend
- using a participative management style


maslow's theory positives

- develop an understanding of individual needs
- takes into account everyone is at a different stage of development


maslow's theory negatives

- not supported by empirical evidence
- manager may struggle to identify where an employee is at


lock and latham positives

- setting challenging, clear and specific goals motivates employees and improves productivity
- studies support the theory
- staff will perform at a higher standard due to their clear and specific goals
- better relationships between employees and managers // collaborative goal setting approach


lock and latham negatives

- setting vague goals can lead to poor performance
- individual employee goals may clash with each other
- only focuses on goal setting -> other features also increase motivation
- failing to meet a goal can be detrimental to employee confidence


four drive theory positives

- the drives work independently allowing managers and employees to be flexible
- very adaptable to complex and intricate environments
- the four drives convert into an effect directed at improving behaviour // thereby improves performance and achievement of objectives


four drive theory negatives

- doesn't explain individual characteristics that motivate people
- some workplace applications involve complex between employees


maslow vs lock and latham - similarities

- successful achievement of a goal in both is similar in esteem and self achievement for Maslow
- recognition and feedback is significant in both theories
- both recognise job satisfaction as a key factor
- both focus on achieving one thing at a time (one goal or step at a time)


maslow vs lock and latham - differences

- M's theory is an ongoing long term process // L+L is short term based
- L+L focuses on the achievement of different goals // the encouragement of employees is a bigger focus then Maslow's theory which focuses on process and procedures that employees achieve to advance
- Maslow concentrates on internal needs of employees L+L focuses on goals external to the employees
- Individual employees vary significantly in the goal setting process while managers are more significant in setting tone within Maslow's theory


maslow vs four drive - similarities

- both theories originally devised as a way of explaining human behaviour in general
- both theories focus on employee satisfaction
- the drives can be compared to Maslows' psychological needs
- drive to bond is similar to social needs of Maslow


maslow vs four drive - differences

- Maslows' theory has four different levels of needs in hierarchical structure while all the drives are considered equal
- Maslows theory has sequential steps whereas progress in the four drive theory can be completed in all areas at the same time
- Satisfying the drive to defend is effectively minimising a potential negative // different from Maslows' positive focus


lock and latham vs four drive - similarities

- the rewards that come from the achievement of a goal in L+L can be linked to the drive to acquire
- both theories show the manager needs to understand each employees individual needs
- both primarily focused on employees (either by input into goals or achieving motivation level on employee needs)
- cooperation between manager and employee is essential


lock and latham vs four drive - differences

- the basis for both theories comes from different sets of ideas (external vs internal motivation)
- in L+L theory one goal is focused on a time vs the drives which can all be undertaken with four drive
- goal setting theory can be closely aligned with the objectives of the business / four drive theory doesn't


motivation strategies

performance related pay
career advancement
investment in training


performance related pay

a financial reward to work that is considered to have achieved or exceeded a required standard including:
- sales commision
- bonus payment
- profit sharing
- share allocation


performance related pay - advantages

- provides a direct financial reward to employees
- tangible way of recognising achievement
- encourages goal setting
- improving productivity levels
- rewards best performance
- only need to be paid when the business is profitable


performance related pay - disadvantages

- reduces equality
- promotes a 'performer' culture which may lead to jealousy or lowered morale
- demotivates if goals are too challenging
- difficulty in measuring productivity levels in some types of jobs
- costs the business extra money
- short term focus


career advancement

- occurs when a person takes on a job that carries greater responsibility or increased opportunities to provide leadership
- benefits include increased pay, improved self-esteem, greater challenge and experience for employees, status
- long term motivator
- policies and procedures for promotion should be in place


opportunities in career advancement

job enlargement (making a job bigger or more giving more responsibility)
job enrichment (making a job more challenging so workers use their full capabilities and gain personal growth)
job rotation (moving between different jobs to increase variety and workforce flexibility)


career advancement - advantages

- rewards past performance
- helps retain talented employees
- retains ip and continuity of knowledge
- could increase contribution to the business
- potential to act as a long term motivator


career advancement - disadvantages

- bad for employees overlooked for a promotion
- employees may be promoted beyond their capability levels
- creates feeling of unrest if promotion is not warranted
- level of productivity may decrease with broader responsibilities


investment in training

- employees gain skills and job knowledge through training and job experience (short term)
- creates an environment that encourages learning and sharing (long term)
- makes employee feel like they are contributing to business outcomes


investment in training - advantages

- indicates that the business values its employees and their contribution
- demonstrates the business wants to advance employees careers
- creates loyalty and attachment
- builds positive corporate culture
- short and long term motivator


investment in training - disadvantages

- expensive investment if the business has insufficient systems
- if employees are in the wrong job this won't help
- upskilled employees may not be able to gain opportunity to use the new skills
- may highlight areas that the business lacks in



- ensuring employees are supported, encouraged, acknowledged for their performance
- helps employees identify with the business mission
- employees will feel proud of the business
- strategies include: employee assistance programs, mentoring and general manager support


support - advantages

- employees more likely to work diligently
- short and long term motivator
- confidential EAPs are accessible for all employees
- doesn't have to cost the business money


support - disadvantages

- need positive corporate culture
- relies on good manager communication skills
- confidential EAPs mean managers may not be aware of problems experienced by the employee



- 'stick' approach
- traditional method of motivating
- motivates via discipline and feat
- includes: loss of benefits, demotion, written warnings, disciplinary counselling and dismissal
- only works in the short term
- rarely able to turn a low performing employee into a high performing one


sanctions - advantages

- may work short term for some employees
- the fear created may bring other employees into line


sanctions - disadvantages

- imposing sanctions only works short term
- can create resentment and cause disputes or employees to take legal action
- promotes a negative corporate culture



training is the process of providing staff with the knowledge or skills required to do a particular job and can include a range of activities either on or off the job
- includes a new employee learning the basics of a system or experienced employee upskilling in a specific area
- can be conducted on or off job



refers to preparing employees for longer term opportunities - had more of a general focus than skills training


training needs analysis

needs to be undertaken to find current issues and future challenges that need to be overcome through a training program. There are three main areas in an analysis:



determines where training should be concentrated to best achieve strategic objectives



individual tasks and jobs are analysed to determine if any specific skills are required for successful performance



each employee is assessed to determine what kind of training is required // this relates to training and development objectives


a performance appraisal can determine if an individual needs training in:

- basic grammar, maths, safety, reading, listening and writing
- openness e.g. equal opportunity, diversity, risk management
- technical skills for the job
- interpersonal skills
- broader-based conceptual skills such as strategic planning, skills or decision making


on the job training

- coaching, tutoring / mentoring provided by the supervisor or work colleague
- role modelling
- apprenticeships
- participation in planned work activities, special assignments or activities
- job rotation within an organisation


on the job training - advantages

- employee is trained on specific equipment or tools that they will use in their role
- trainer / mentor is on hand to guide them without having to wait for an external session
- employee is actually working while learning
- cost-effective way to train


on the job training - disadvantages

- quality of training may vary
- trainer may not be adequately trained in that specific area
- mentor or coach may try to cram too much information into one training session
- bringing in an external trainer may give new information
- may cause a trainer to leave their own duties to help out the new employee lowering their productivity


off the job training

- includes information presentations
- information processing (more interaction // requiring trainee's input)
- simulations, role play, online


off the job training advantages

- a wider range of skills can be taught and learned
- learning from specialists and experts
- less opportunities to be interrupted
- provided opportunity for networking and information sharing with other employees


off the job training disadvantages

- more expensive when paying course fees, transport, accomication
- lost working time and potential input from employees when training at the course
- employees with higher skill levels may leave the business for greater pay
- skills acquired may not directly relate to the workforce


performance management

the practices used to make decisions about employee performance, remuneration, transfers, promotion, disciplinary measures, training and development needs or termination
- normally linked to set goals and the degree to which they were achieved
- management by objectives involves managers and employees setting goals together which are in line with business objectives

STRATEGIES: Self-Evaluation, Management By Objectives, Performance Appraisal, Employee Observation


performance management - steps

1. business objectives are clearly defined
2. individual employee goals are negotiated
3. regular monitoring of progress
4. performance feedback
5. performance appraisal on achievement of goals


performance appraisal

- a performance appraisal is a formal or informal review of an employee's performance within a period of time and usually takes into account the extent to which an employee has achieved the goals which were set for them
- a disadvantage is that it is time consuming, confronting and can lose productivity


employee observation

- when an employees' behaviour is monitored regularly by observation (360 degree feedback is a strategy which takes into account observation from multiple stakeholders)


self evaluation

the first part of a performance appraisal
- involves an employee assessing their performance before capturing this with the assessment of the manager



termination is a decision either made by the employer or employee to terminate the employment contract
- can be voluntary or involuntary


voluntary methods




when an employee chooses to leave the workplace, usually to go to another job



when an employee chooses to leave the paid workforce


voluntary leaving impacts on business

loss of talent
cost of replacement
decline in morale
breakdown of effective teams
productivity would increase or decrease


involuntary methods




occurs when an employee is terminated due to being redundant



when there is no longer sufficient work for the employee to perform
- there is a minimum period of notice which must be provided



termination of an employment contract due to incompetence or lack of discipline
- must conduct employee counselling etc before dismissal
- period of notice must be given
- an employee may dispute a dismissal if they believe it is unfair at the Fair Work Comission


dismissal positive impacts

- cutting of non productive employees
- reduction in costs
- change in business structure
- stops employee undertaking serious misconduct at the workplace


dismissal negative impacts

- loss of talent
- decline in morale
- breakdown of effective teams
- increase pressure on performance of remaining staff



employees are entitled to get the following when leaving the business
- wages or salary still owing
- accrued annual leave
- low service leave entitlements
- redundancy pay


transition issues

- outplacement services
- redundancy packages (for redundancy)
- gradual reduction in time worked (for retirement)
- counselling and support


outplacement services

- outplacement services assist retrenched employees to gain new work and provide counselling to help them cope with the stress of losing their job
- also run skill-development programs in areas such as resume writing and interview techniques, and they can offer office space and access to facilities to organise interviews.
- costs are usually covered by the business


redundancy packages

- a generous redundancy package would include all of the entitlements legally owed to an employee, such as accrued annual leave, plus a payout based on what is stipulated in the employee’s conditions of employment (employment contract) // this is typically a certain number of weeks’ pay per year of service.


gradual reduction in time worked

- this allows an employee who is retiring to slowly ease into retirement


counselling and support

- may offer counselling on government support or pension entitlements and advice on lifestyle choices etc


employee relations

- also known as workplace relations and industrial relations are often used interchangeably
- refers to the relationship and communication between employers and employees or their representatives
- this includes the establishment of wages and conditions and the resolution of workplace grievances


degregulated market

- where aspects of the employee-employer relationship are not subject to government control and regulation
- collective bargaining is where wages and conditions are negotiated and agreed by a union for all employees collectively who the union represents


basic causes of disputes

- employers and their employees have different viewpoints as to how profits should be shared or distributed
- employers want to reinvest to promote growth while employees want better pay and working conditions
- government wants to also influence how the 'pie' is distributed


participants in workplace relations

trade unions
employer associations
hr managers
fair work commission
fair work ombudsman
fair work division of federal court


trade unions

a trade union is a group of employees usually from the same or similar industry who combine to protect common interest in all matters relating to their employment
- usually there is a fee to join a union


unions should be able to

- negotiate during collective bargaining
- argue employees' cases in hearings to determine awards
- provide support and advice for shop stewards and workers at a workplace level
- offer services and facilities to members
- provide info on relevant matters to members
- act as an official spokesperson to the media on behalf of union members


raising a matter

- go to management
- work though the HR department
- go to the union exec.


union executive

officials elected by union members to run the union on. a day-to-day basis


two main union organisations

- Australian Council of Trade Unions
- Victorian Trade Halls Council


Australian Council of Trade Unions

represent the union movement in dealings with the government and fair work commission hearings


Victorian Trade Halls Council

responsible for implementing ACTU policy in Victoria


employer associations

employer associations are groups of employers who unite to promote a common interest in workplace relations issues (similar to unions for employees)


three types of employer associations

industry associations
professional associations
peak bodies


industry associations

made up of employers of the same industry


professional associations

made up of members of a profession


peak bodies

comprised of a large number of employees with varied industry types


the role of employer associations

- represent employers in industrial relations commission cases
- represent employers in collective bargaining
- advise employers of their rights and obligations
- act as a spokesperson for members of their organisation as a collective


human resource managers

employee relations specialists within HR liaise closely with other departments to create a harmonious and productive workplace


role of HR managers

- admin of day to day procedures including wage payments
- negotiation with employees / their representatives regarding relations
- participation in dispute resolution
- hiring and training employees
- respond to queries from employees and management
- act as an intermediary between employees, unions and senior management


what does workplace relations require of management

- commitment of management and employees to the achievement of objectives
- allowing employees to feel their contribution is valued
- treating employee complaints seriously
- promotion of the concept change is essential and inevitable to create a flexible mindset
- provision of fair pay and work conditions
- maintenance of good working relationships between management and union officials
- fair and accessible grievance procedures


fair work institutions

all established in 2009 (FW. Act 2009)
- Fair Work Commission
- Fair Work Ombudsman
- Fair Work Division of the Federal Court of Australia


Fair Work Commission

- has the power to make legally binding decisions and orders relating to workplace relations
- create and maintain a safety net of min. wages and conditions of different industries
- providing assistance with workplace dispute resolution (mediate and arbitrate)
- support enterprise bargaining and making sure it is fair
- approve agreements


Fair Work Ombudsman

- role is to promote knowledge, productive and cooperative relations and to ensure workplaces comply with Australian laws
- enforces Fair Work Act 2009
- also a point of contact for information who also assess and investigate complaints and breaches of workplace laws
- inspectors are also employed by the Ombudsman to investigate, resolve, complaints and conduct workplace audits


Fair Work Division of the Federal Court of Australia

- located in all major cities and regional cities in Australia
- hear breaches of the Fair Work Act 2009 including unfair dismissal
- aims to resolve in a less formal environment, promptly and efficiently
- appeals from decisions of single judges here can be heard in the Federal Court


National Employment Standards - overview

- ten minimum entitlements are set out in the Fair Work Act 2009


National Employment Standards - list

max weekly hours
requests for flexible work arrangements
parental leave and related entitlements
annual leave
personal and carers leave
community service leave
long service leave
public holidays
termination and redundancy pay
fair work information statement


max weekly hours

38h/week (or reasonable)


requests for flexible work arrangements

certain employees can request a change in arrangements


parental leave and related entitlements

up to 12 months unpaid and ability to request up to a further 12 months


annual leave

four weeks paid per year and additional for shift workers


personal and carers leave

up to 10 days per year paid


community service leave

unpaid leave for voluntary emergency response and up to 10 days paid leave jury service


long service leave

paid leave for employees who are with the same employer for a long period of time


public holidays

entitlement to a day off unless reasonable request to work


notice of termination and redundancy pay

up to four weeks notice (+1 for over 45) and up to 16 weeks redundancy pay


fair work information statement

must be provided to all employees



legally binding minimum requirements for wages and conditions concerning a specific industry
must be better than the NES


awards must include

- minimum wages
- work conditions and overtime
- meal breaks
- holiday and leave
- penalty rates and allowance
- grievance and termination procedures
- superannuation


awards - advantages

quick and easy to implement
transferrable between jobs (same pay)


awards - disadvantages

no incentive to work for one business over another
no easy negotiation


enterprise agreements

an agreement usually between one or more employers and two or more employees with chosen representatives (usually a union) which need to be reached through enterprise bargaining (negotiation)
- must be approved by the majority of employees and registered and approved with the FWC
- legally binding


for an enterprise agreement to be approved the agreement must

- be better off overall than the award
- no unlawful terms included
- the agreement runs for a specified time up to four years
- a dispute resolution process must be included


enterprise agreements - advantages

- have negotiation available
- need to be better than both the NES and the award
- flexible > adapts to the workplace


enterprise agreements - disadvantages

- lost productivity for negotiation / time consuming
- costly and legal advice
- costs more


individual employment contract

- must not provide less than the NES of any relevant awards and agreements
- negotiated between the employer and individual employee
- duration determined by negotiation
- an employee may also sign on an IFA (individual flexibility agreement) to allow the contract to be varied or changed


individual employment contract - advantages

- keeps skilled workers and attracts them


individual employment contract - disadvantages

- costly


award vs enterprise agreements - similar

- both better than the NES
- wages and conditions set out
- both approved by the FWC


award vs enterprise agreements - different

- whole industry vs workplace
- established by FW commission instead of negotiated between employer and employees
- one can be tailored by a workplace and one is set


dispute resolution process

a business must have in place a dispute resolution process that parties follow to resolve disputes
effective dispute resolution helps employers maintain good relationships with employees through dealing with disputes at an early stage


grievance procedures

a formal process in which internal disputes can be addressed
the HR manager may be involved in the process
- benefit: disputes can be resolved in the business


steps of dispute resolution

1. listen to staff
2. refer to senior management
3. referred to an independent body for mediation
4. matter referred to FWC for arbitration



- the FWC will only deal with a dispute if it is referred by other parties
- the mediator can't input or provide input on the situation
- decisions made here are not legally binding
disadvantage: no guarantee there will be a decision reached



- FWC is involved with the dispute mediation process
- arbitrator makes final decision
- legally binding
- benefit: there is a definitive outcome from the event
- disadvantage: the final decision is taken out of the hands of the disputing parties


industrial action types

work to rule
stop work meeting
lock out



workers leave and don't work


work to rule

workers perform the bare minumum


stop work meeting

taking a meeting during work hours


lock out

employer locks out employees so they can't work


protected action

action that is approved by the FWC according to if:
- an existing agreement passes its expiry date
- parties have genuinely tried to reach an agreement
- authorised by ballot
- employers have been given the required notice


unprotected action

not approved by the FWC or protected in any aspect
compensation for damages may be sought