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Flashcards in U3AOS3 - Operations Management Deck (104)
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1

operations

a series of procedures and processes undertaken in order to create output

2

operations management

management of resources and functions within a business to achieve efficient output of finished goods and services in a way which adds value to customers and creates a profit margin for the business

- manufacturing has decreased in importance to Australian economy but service industries have increased their relative contribution to gross domestic product

3

relationship with objectives

- has direct impact on competitiveness and achievement of objectives
- determines the overall quality and cost of production
- controlling operations well can increase effectiveness

4

improving competitiveness requires operations management to

establish and achieve objectives such as increasing productivity as well as quality in processes and output while adopting a sustainable approach to operations

5

factors which affect competitiveness

- levels of operational efficiency and productivity
- high standards of quality build into operations
- socially and ethically responsible operations

6

ways to increase levels of operational efficiency and productivity include

- establishing reliable supply chains
- minimising wastage and defects
- applying technology

7

high standards of quality build into operations

improves quality of output and thus competitiveness

8

socially and ethically responsible operations

attracts high quality investors
attracts high quality staff and customers

9

main goal of operations management

minimising the cost of production (efficiency) while maintaining the quality of the output produced (effectiveness)

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main factors of an operations system which provide value to the customer

- productivity levels (max quantity at min cost)
- quality (degree of excellence in products)
- speed (relating to customer demand and production response
- reliability (in meeting customer demand)
- flexibility (ability to change production cycle to meet customer and tech changes)

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participants in operations management

production manager
quality manager
materials manager
- procurement manager
- logistics manager
- inventory control manager
IT manager
maintenance manager

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operations manager

involves making sure the operations system of the business meet the business objectives including tests such as:
- strategic decision making
- overseeing operations as they occur

13

specific aspects of operations management

- inventory management // determines the qualities of inputs required in order for requirements to be met
- manufacturing // determining production rates required to meet budget forecasts
- quality // determining required standards, documentation of quality and standards as well as codes of practice
- maintenance // ensure equipment is up to date and in working order

14

measuring efficiency

the primary aim or objective of an operations manager is to enhance efficiency or productivity
- improvements will in effect reducer costs of production and allow the organisation to produce the same or greater level of output for lower input costs

15

productivity

refers to the ratio of output obtained from the level of input
- measured by KPIs

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example KPIs

units of production produced per employee
crop tonnage per hectare planted
number of clients attended to per hour

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factors determining productivity

technology
research and development
equipment and facilities
tasks and procedures
layout of facilities
communication processes
workplace safety

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main industry types

primary sector
secondary / manufacturing sector
tertiary / service sector

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primary sector

- agriculture / mining / fishing and hunting
- extract or harvest products or raw materials from the environment
- products are known as commodities

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secondary / manufacturing sector

- create finished goods through the production process
- construction / engineering / factories / craft

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tertiary / service sector

- provide intangible products or services // people sell their labour and expertise
- retail / professional sector / media / tourism / banking

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goods

- tangible
- production and consumption occur separately
- can be stored
- easily standardised and mass produced
- minimal customer contact
- capital intensive process

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services

- intangible
- easily customisable
- production and consumption occur often simultaneously
- difficult to store
- high degree of customer contact
- labour intensive process

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goods and services - similar

- utilize technology
- deal with customers and suppliers
- plan and develop organisational objectives
- require decision making on how to optimise productivity / quality levels
- aim to produce high quality goods or services at the lowest cost

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key elements of the operations system

inputs
transformation
output

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inputs

- materials (raw and components)
- HR (labour)
- technology
- capital (plant and equipment)
- utilities
- information and knowledge
- time

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transformation

- the process adds value
- in the process the inputs are referred to as works in progress
- operations manager plans, organises and controls the transformation process
- decisions should be more geared towards optimising efficiency, effectiveness and therefore competitiveness

28

outputs

- outputs are the final products and results
- to maintain competitiveness management must ensure that the type of output is responsive to market needs

29

tech optimising operations

automation
CAD
CAM
websites / cloud computing

30

automation

- involves the replacement of human effort by machinery and technology
- examples include automated production lines which process raw materials and they leave as finished products with little to no human interaction

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automation advantages

- increased production speed
- reduction in material waste
- greater precision and accuracy
- more efficient use of time
- potential to replace dangerous or repetitive work

32

automation disadvantages

- security threats
- high initial start up costs
- social responsibility implication
- tech can be viewed as inflexible

33

CAD (computer aided design)

computer program that facilitates creation and modification of the design
- uses software to make designs in 3D faster and more accurately
- can test and cost designs before they are produced

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CAD advantages

efficient

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CAD disadvantages

cost
experience of employees

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CAM (computer aided manufacturing)

computer program that controls the manufacturing and parts of the production line
- machinery, tools and equipment controlled through a computer

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CAM advantages

- reduces labour and costs
- less time
- improves the quality and consistency

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CAM disadvantages

- reduces jobs available // ethical responsibilities
- costly to set up initially
- halts operations if there is an issue
- training to use the machinery

39

website / cloud computing

ecommerce, advertising, communication, providing information
- the development and maintenance of an accessible and easily locatable business website is vital for competitiveness
- customers see the products of a business, menus, locations, offers and benefits via websites
- inventory storage and accessing data and programs over the internet instead of through a local hard drive

40

website / cloud computing advantages

- 24/7
- increases access to information
- improves effectiveness and efficiency

41

website / cloud computing disadvantages

- no physical location
- work life balance affected
- hacking and privacy concerns

42

materials management

relates to the inward flow of materials including movement and storage of raw materials, work in progress inventory and finished goods
- need to make sure the operations manager can make things arrive on time (right place, standard and quantity)
- risk of having large quantities in storage → waste // not used, becomes obsolete or OOD, damaged, increased housing costs, stolen or lost stock

43

forecasting

the job of a materials manager is to provide the right materials in the right quantities and levels of quality at the right time
- procurement involves locating and acquiring a regular and reliable supply of high quality inputs

44

along with quantity, type of supply and the required needs have to be considered

- supplier lead in time (suppliers require prior warning for orders)
- future price changes (take into account seasonal variations, world market conditions or changes in the value of the Australian dollar)

45

forecasting advantages

- less waste
- less storage required
- cheaper

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forecasting disadvantages

- could go wrong // some things can’t be forecasted

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other tools designed to optimise materials forecasting and planning

master production scheduling
materials requirement planning and scheduling

48

master production scheduling

- involves setting out the production requirements and breaking it down into stages
- shows exactly what needs to be produced in what time frame (delivery dates and contracts set out)

49

master production scheduling specifics

- quantities and types of production over different periods
- quantities of inputs that will be required to meet these output levels over a set time frame
- computer software has been written to make this easier

50

materials requirement planning and scheduling

MRP is a computer based inventory management system to assist scheduling and planning orders; it:
- ensures sufficient inputs are on target to meet production requirements
- minimises inventory costs
- planning operational activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities

51

the following factors are considered with MRP

- supplier lead in time
- exact amounts of materials required
- possible future price changes
- planning to entire correct quantities of materials are kept in storage
- contracts should be established to ensure a regular and reliable supply of input materials
- systems must be established to keep inventory at required levels

52

inventory management

inventory is made up of raw materials, unfinished production and finished goods ready for distribution
- it takes a lot of space and therefore has a cost
- if the inventory doesn't hold enough inputs the production cycle will halt
- optimal inventory levels must be clearly identified and monitored with reordering procedures in place

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the impacts of optimising inventory

- developing a reliable accurate inventory system that determines what items to order
- a system that determines how and when to store items

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improvements to inventory could include

- new mechanical and automated warehousing equipment to allow for easier stock movement
- computerised stock control systems
- just in time inventory management

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just in time

involves the reduction and minimisation of inventory levels in the supply chain thereby reducing inventory levels
- the availability of products in the required amounts at the right time in the production process is crucial while minimising the use of materials, equipment, labour and space
- aims to reduce waste and storage costs

56

JIT system advantages

- reduces production costs
- inventory holding reduced
- storage space requirements reduced

57

JIT system disadvantages

- depends on reliable and frequent materials delivery
- allows for less time checking on materials quality
- ordering and admin costs may increase with the requirement for more frequent orders
- bulk buying discounts may be lost

58

quality

the degree of excellence in a product and its ability to satisfy customer/client requirements

59

quality management programs

quality control
total quality management
quality assurance

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quality control

includes a series of physical checks at different stages of production to ensure that products and services meet designated standards and errors are eliminated post-production
- defective products are rejected and may be sold as seconds
- reactive by nature and eliminates when occurrences arise
- operations management decides whether production needs to be halted or not

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stages of quality control

establishment of standards
carry out inspections on performance
compare results of inspection with standards
correct processes to prevent defects reoccuring

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quality assurance

assurance aims to build quality into work processes thereby avoiding errors before occurrence
- it is a proactive process involving the use of an external organisation
- attaining certification entitles an organisation to display certification marks
- provides confidence

63

quality assurance certification process

1. organisation employs a consultant to advise on quality standards to be met
2. adjustments in process and procedures made in line with standards
3. certification granted
4. right to use standard logo in marketing etc granted

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total quality management

a holistic approach to quality where all members of an organisation aim to participate in ongoing improvement of organisational culture and production processes
- employees are placed into work groups known as quality circles and they work together to achieve quality improvements in their area

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TQM system components

- focus on customer
- continuous improvement
- quality improvement
- accurate evaluation
- involve all employees

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TQM core concepts

continuous process improvement
customer focus
defect prevention
universal responsibility

67

lean management

the term given to a range of measured to reduce waste and costs of production
- focuses on identifying and removing all activities within the operations system that doesn't add value to the product

68

the steps in lean production are:

1. identify why customers will pay for the product
2. identify all steps taken in the operations system
3. make everyone in the organisation responsible for areas of waste
4. implement improvements to minimise inventory levels, maximize production flow, produce items when required
5. empower workers and make them responsible for strategies to eliminate waste
6. partner with suppliers

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waste minimisation

a process that involves reducing the amount of unwanted or unstable resources created by the business' production process in an attempt to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operations
- demonstrates concern for the natural environment and can improve the reputation of the business

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areas of waste minimisation

TIM WOOD
- transport
- inventory
- motion

- wasted time
- overprocessing
- overproduction
- defects

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transport

distance between stages needs to be minimised and reduced
- caused by poor layouts, large batch sizes and multiple storage locations

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inventory

stock in excess of requirements is waste
- could be caused by lack of work / flow balance or large batch sizes

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motion

any motion or equipment not adding value
- caused by poor workstation layout and organisation

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wasted time

idle time of production
- caused by changovers and poor coordination

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overprocessing

putting more into a product than is valued by a consumer

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overproduction

creating too much
- caused by lack of planning

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defects

waste of corrections inc additional work performed on the product
- created by excess stock, inadequate training or inadequate supplies

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TIM WOOD strengths

- reduced energy and resource consumption
- reduced delays
- increased worker productivity
- reduced uncertainty
- increased customer satisfaction

79

TIM WOOD weaknesses

- requires committed and experienced employees
- employees may not like the change to lean management
- the constant force on improvement can result in stress
- requires a good relationship with suppliers
- can involve high implementation costs

80

corporate social responsibility

the commitment by organisations to conduct their business in an ethical manner, have responsibility for economic, social and environmental consequences of their activities and to be accountable to a wide range of stakeholders

81

pressures for CSR come from

employees
customers
shareholders
community
media
suppliers

82

five areas of CSR

corporate governance and accountability
sustainability and the environment
employees ethical treatment
human rights
community involvement

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corporate governance and accountability

- companies are responsible for their actions and the impacts of shareholders, government, employees, customers and community

84

sustainability and the environment

responsible for environmental impacts

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employees ethical treatment

work life balance

86

human rights

use of ethical suppliers and Fairtrade issues

87

community involvement

volunteering programs

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aspects of socially responsible operations may include

- waste minimisation such as recycling
- strategies that reduce carbon emissions such as green technology
- provision of enhanced quality of life for employees through safe working environments and respecting employee rights
- taking responsibility for the environment, social and economic impacts of the organization's activities

89

triple bottom line

economic performance
social performance
environmental performance

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economic performance

measured through KPIs measuring profits, market share and monetary value of assets
- KPIs include net profit, turnover, market share

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social performance

measured through examination of inputs the business has within the business and outside the business
- KPIs include labour utilisation, staff morale, working conditions

92

environmental performance

measured through impact on the natural environment
- KPIs include emission levels, rates of recycling and waste levels

93

environmental management systems

a series of policies and procedures that focuses on an organisations approach to environmental issues
- requires things such as monitoring and measuring of its progress, identification of how the business interacts with the environment and development of an environmental policy that focuses on an organisations approach to environmental issues

94

environmental management systems considerations

- can be costly and time consuming to implement
- can increased environmental performance and lead to increased efficiency and reduced costs
- employee morale may be lifted with the awareness of environmental issues

95

socially responsible inputs

- may have a environmentally friendly purchasing policy
- a sustainable procurement process may be used (sourcing)
- pre-qualification may occur to make sure the supplier meets the right criteria
- audits are done to check the standards are being met
- local suppliers have priority as they have lesser CO2 impact
- considerations include treatment of employees as well

96

Fairtrade

allows customers to identify goods that have international standards
helps by promoting policies such as fair and stable prices, long term contract security etc

97

sustainable procurement

purchase of sustainable inputs helps minimise the effects business operation has on the natural environment
- examples inc. the purchase of green energy

98

sustainable processing

a sustainable processing place will use fewer resources, lower emissions and waste and reduce costs
- examples inc. the reuse of resources

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sustainable outputs

social and ethical considerations include:
- non harmful (to society or the environment)
- quality outputs adding real value for consumers
- honest marketing (truthful or non-deceptive marketing maintains a socially responsible image)
- packaging (eco friendly and no offensive content)
- recyclable or biodegradable packaging options

100

supply chain

a supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from suppliers to manufacturers and then to consumers

101

global sourcing

refers to the business participating in a global supply chain
- global sourcing of inputs
- overseas processing
- global outsourcing (contracting an overseas business to perform some of its operations)

102

global sourcing advantages

- global efficiency
- lower input and production costs
- skills and resources not found in home country can be used

103

global sourcing disadvantages

- hidden costs
- changing financial and political situations
- risk of losing IP
- time (delays or holdups)
- loss of Australian jobs

104

issues to address

- local labour costs and conditions (need to take CSR into account and ensure employees aren't exploited)
- environmental issues
- exchange rates
- tariffs
- location of overseas suppliers