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Flashcards in UA- General info & Macroscopic Deck (30)
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1

Is a UA diagnostic?

NO it can only be used for screening

2

What is urine?

continuously formed ultra-filtrate of plasma

3

How much urine is produced a day? By filtering how much plasma a day?

1000-1800 mL of urine a day from 170,000 mL of filtered plasma

4

Where does secretion into filtrate occur? Where does concentration of urine occur?

Secretions from PCT
Concentration happens in Loop of Henle, Distal tubules & collecting ducts

5

What are factors which will affect urine formation? (5)

BP, ADH, acid-base balance, fluid balance, nutrient intake

6

Urine is mostly made up of what?

urea!

7

UA reveals information about what 5 things?

1. kidney & liver fxn
2. metabolic processes
3. infectious disease
4. nutritional status
5. occult (hidden) disease

8

What 6 sx that a pt presents with would lead you to do a UA?

1. abdominal pain
2. back pain
3. dysuria
4. urinary frequency
5. urinary urgency
6. hematuria

9

Do you do a UA every visit to the doc? If yes or no then when specifically?

-Routine monitoring for pts with: chronic real dx, liver dx, high BP, DM/DI
-family hx of renal disease
-pregnancy
-annual for young child/baby

10

What urine is the best? How long can urine be stored for?

Freshly voided urine, preferably first morning void (mostly unlikely though); need to test w/in an hour or can be kept in fridge for up to 4 hours; want CCMS

11

What are alternative ways to collect a urine sample?

bagged specimen (pediatric), suprapubic aspiration or catheritization

12

What void is the most concentrated and what will it have the most of? The least of?

First morning void is the most concentrated; most concentrated in protein, bilirubin, nitrites & measures ability to concentrate urine; least of casts b/c deteriorate in bladder overnight

13

What are the 10 tests on a dipstick?

glucose, bilirubin, ketone, SG, blood, pH, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite & leukocytes

14

What are the macroscopic tests on a UA?

color, clarity and odor

15

What is the normal color of urine?

pale to straw yellow

16

What does red or red-brown urine indicate?

hematuria: intact RBCs in urine
hemoglobinuria: lysed RBCs in urine
beets, rhubarb

17

What does orange or amber urine indicate?

bilirubinuria: jaundice

18

What does green urine indicate?

infection

19

What does brown-black urine indicate?

melanin

20

What does colorless urine indicate?

very dilute: DM, DI, overhydration

21

What does bright yellow urine indicate?

riboflavin (B2)

22

What does cloudy urine indicate?

WBCs, bacteria, amorphous urates, amorphous phosphates, epi cells

23

What does hazy urine indicate?

mucus, protein

24

What does milky urine indicate?

fat/lipids

25

What does smoky urine indicate?

RBCs

26

What is sweet or fruity urine indicative of?

uncontrolled diabetes

27

What is foul or pungent urine indicative of?

bacterial infection

28

What is must urine indicative of?

phenlketouria

29

What is fruity/grape juice urine indicative of?

pseudomonas infection

30

What is maple syrup urine indicative of?

maple syrup urine disease