Flashcards in UA- General info & Macroscopic Deck (30)
Is a UA diagnostic?
NO it can only be used for screening
What is urine?
continuously formed ultra-filtrate of plasma
How much urine is produced a day? By filtering how much plasma a day?
1000-1800 mL of urine a day from 170,000 mL of filtered plasma
Where does secretion into filtrate occur? Where does concentration of urine occur?
Secretions from PCT
Concentration happens in Loop of Henle, Distal tubules & collecting ducts
What are factors which will affect urine formation? (5)
BP, ADH, acid-base balance, fluid balance, nutrient intake
Urine is mostly made up of what?
UA reveals information about what 5 things?
1. kidney & liver fxn
2. metabolic processes
3. infectious disease
4. nutritional status
5. occult (hidden) disease
What 6 sx that a pt presents with would lead you to do a UA?
1. abdominal pain
2. back pain
4. urinary frequency
5. urinary urgency
Do you do a UA every visit to the doc? If yes or no then when specifically?
-Routine monitoring for pts with: chronic real dx, liver dx, high BP, DM/DI
-family hx of renal disease
-annual for young child/baby
What urine is the best? How long can urine be stored for?
Freshly voided urine, preferably first morning void (mostly unlikely though); need to test w/in an hour or can be kept in fridge for up to 4 hours; want CCMS
What are alternative ways to collect a urine sample?
bagged specimen (pediatric), suprapubic aspiration or catheritization
What void is the most concentrated and what will it have the most of? The least of?
First morning void is the most concentrated; most concentrated in protein, bilirubin, nitrites & measures ability to concentrate urine; least of casts b/c deteriorate in bladder overnight
What are the 10 tests on a dipstick?
glucose, bilirubin, ketone, SG, blood, pH, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite & leukocytes
What are the macroscopic tests on a UA?
color, clarity and odor
What is the normal color of urine?
pale to straw yellow
What does red or red-brown urine indicate?
hematuria: intact RBCs in urine
hemoglobinuria: lysed RBCs in urine
What does orange or amber urine indicate?
What does green urine indicate?
What does brown-black urine indicate?
What does colorless urine indicate?
very dilute: DM, DI, overhydration
What does bright yellow urine indicate?
What does cloudy urine indicate?
WBCs, bacteria, amorphous urates, amorphous phosphates, epi cells
What does hazy urine indicate?
What does milky urine indicate?
What does smoky urine indicate?
What is sweet or fruity urine indicative of?
What is foul or pungent urine indicative of?
What is must urine indicative of?
What is fruity/grape juice urine indicative of?