UA-WI18-Collection And Physical Exmination of Urine Flashcards Preview

Urinary Analysis > UA-WI18-Collection And Physical Exmination of Urine > Flashcards

Flashcards in UA-WI18-Collection And Physical Exmination of Urine Deck (42):
1

Timing of collection:

Unspecified, can be collected at any time, most common screening purposes, can sometimes give and inaccurate view of a patients health.

Random

2

Timing of collection:

First voided the urine is generally more concentrated, contains relatively higher levels of cellular elements or proteins.

(8Hour specimen)

First morning

3

Timing of collection:

Voided after 8 hours of fasting

Fasting second

4

Timing of Collection:

Is before a meal, and to collect
a specimen 2 hours after eating

Postprandial- first-voided

5

Timing of collection:

(a.k.a.24 hour collection) is collection of urine
measures creatinine, urine urea nitrogen, glucose, sodium, potassium

Timed

6

Timing of collection:

Is the preferred type of
specimen for bacteria culture and sensitivity testing because of the reduced incidence of cellular and microbial contamination

Midstream clean catch urine

7

Timing of collection:

When urine stands at room temperature for a long time, what happens?

Casts and red cells undergo lysis, and the urine becomes alkalinized with precipitation of salts

8

What are the chemicals used to preserve urine?

•Boric acid (the most common) •Chloroform
•Formalin
•Thymole
•Toluene
•Preservative tablet

9

What is included in the physical examination of urine?

1. Appearance (color, transparency, foams, odor)

2. Specific gravity

3. Volume

10

Urine color:

Pigment that gives urine it’s characteristic yellow color.

Urochrome (urobilin)

11

Urine color:

Substance that contributes some pink or reddish color to urine

Uroerythrin

12

What else contributes to urine color?

Foods

Medication

Disease

Concentration of solutes

13

Abnormal urine color:

Milky body fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats or free fatty acids.

Chyle (pathologic)

14

Abnormal urine color:

White color urine, pathologic appearance due to?

Chyle

Lipids

Pyuria (many WBCs)

15

Abnormal urine color:

White color urine, non-pathologic appearance do to?

Phosphates

Vaginal creams

16

Abnormal urine color:

Yellow to amber orange urine, pathologic appearance due to?

Liver dysfunction (excessive urobilin or bilirubin)

Chemotherapeutic drugs

17

Abnormal urine color:

Yellow to amber to orange, non-pathologic appearance due?

Carrots (beta carotene)

Concentrated urine (dehydration)

Food color

Vitamin B complex or C

18

Abnormal urine color:

Yellow to green urine, pathologic appearance due to?

Biliverdin

Bilirubin

19

Abnormal urine color:

Yellow to green urine, non-pathologic appearance due to?

Asparagus

20

Abnormal urine color:

Pink to red urine, pathologic appearance due to?

RBC

Hemoglobin

Myoglobin

Porphyrin

21

Abnormal urine color:

Pink to red urine, non-pathological appearance due to?

Beets (anthocyanin)

Food color

22

Abnormal urine color:

Red to purple urine, pathologic appearance due to?

Porphyrin

(No non-pathological reasons)

23

Abnormal urine color:

Red to brown urine, pathologic appearance due to ?

Methemoglobin

Myoglobin

(No non-Pathologic reasons)

24

Abnormal urine color:

Brown to black urine, pathologic appearance due to?

Bilirubin

Methemoglobin

Myoglobin

Melanin

Homogentistic acid (Alkapton)

25

Abnormal urine color:

Brown to black urine, non pathologic appearance due to ?

Iron compounds

Favs beans

Aloe

26

Abnormal urine color:

Blue to green urine , pathologic appearance due to ?

Biliverdin

Pseudomonas infection

27

Abnormal urine color:

Blue to green urine, non-pathologic appearance due to ?

Vitamin B12

Thymole

Diuretic therapy (blue urine color)

28

Urine is usually clear. Cloudy appearance may be due to amorphous crystals.

Amorphous phosphates precipitate=

White color

29

Urine is usually clear. Cloudy appearance may be due to amorphous crystals.

Amorphous rate precipitate =

A pink color

30

Urine clarity:

Cloudy

Contains salts/crystals

31

Urine clarity: Hazy

Contain mucus

32

Urine clarity: Smoky

Contains RBC

33

Urine Clarity: Turbid

Contains leukocytes, bacteria, pus, proteins, epithelial cells

34

Urine clarity: Milky

Contain fat or chyle

35

Urine clarity:

Clear, pathologic appearance

Very dilute

Polyuria

36

Urine clarity:

Clear, non-pathologic appearance

Over-hydrated

37

Urine clarity:

Hazy to cloudy to turbid, pathologic appearance

Varying degrees of casts

Cells

Crystals & calculi

Fat(lipid/chyle)

Microorganisms

Fecal contamination

38

Urine clarity:

Hazy to cloudy to turbid non-pathologic appearance

Creams, lotions

Crystals

Mucus

Radiographic dyes

Powders

Fecal contamination

39

Foamy urine Pathologic etiology

Significant amounts of protein

UTI

Fistula from colon to bladder

40

Foamy urine, non-pathologic etiology

Rapid urination

Foam increased with urine concentration

Toilet cleaner

41

Odor of urine:
Odor
1. Sweet/fruity
2.Pungent
3. Maple syrup
4. Musty or mousy odor of infant urine
5. Rancid butter or fishy
6. Stronger ammonia

Odor Cause
1. Ketones
2. Bacteria
3. Amino acids
4. Phenylketonuria
5. Hypermethioninemia
6. Dehydration

42

Urine concentration tests:

1. Ratio of the weight of a volume of urine to the weight of
the same volume of distilled water at a constant temperature.

• Used to measure the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney

• Concentrating ability is one of the first functions to be lost
as a result of tubular damage.

• Normal range is 1.003–1.035

Urine Specific gravity