Flashcards in Unfinishednation Deck (500):
House of Burgesses
July 30, 1619, delegates from various communities met as the first elected legislature within what was going to be the US.
Evidence of the struggle to define the Indian and white influence in Virginia. Led by Nathaniel Bacon and started off as an unauthorized military effort on the Indians. Bacon & his army turned against Berkeley and led tropps east to Jamestown. First time he was pardoned but the second time his agreement was repudiated. So, Bacon burned the city and drove the governor into exile (but died suddenly, letting Berkeley regain control) *Connected to the switch from indentured servent labor to slave labor
The new governor elected by new owners who preferred to stay in England. He and other founders of Massachusetts believed they founded a holy commonwealth for the corrupt world to see and emulate
1) Closed colonies to all trade except that carried by English ships and required tobacco/others to be exported from colonies to England/English possessions (1660) 2) Required all goods sent from Europe to colonies to pass through England to be taxed (1663) 3) Imposed duties on coastal trade in English colonies and provided for the appointment of custom officials to enforce the Acts
The first English colony & it was chosen poorly as the site was low and swampy. It bordered the territories of powerful local Indians & for 17 years settlers would come. Every effort failed to make Jamestown a habitable and profitable colony. No real households/no permanent stake in the community (no women).
The colonists' first marketable crop was tobacco. By the early 17th century, tobacco from the Spanish colonies was already in wide use. Jamestown planter John Rolfe tried to cultivate the crop in Virginia.
While aboard the Mayflower, the "saints" (Puritan Separatists) made an agreement to establish a government for themselves.
A bloodless coup when James II fled to France and his Protestant daughter, Mary, and husband William of Orange assumed the throne (joint sovereigns)
A business entity which is owned by shareholders (the Virginia Company)
Act Concerning Religion
In 1649, this act was for a policy of religious toleration because the Calverts knew Catholics would always be a minority. Didn't really work because of the tensions and even violence between the Catholics and Protestants.
An intelligent and charismatic woman who wanted to establish religious order in Massachusetts Bay. She argued that many clergy were not "elect" and therefore not a spiritual authority (Antinomian heresy). She challenged women's roles in Puritan society and was later banished.
At 27 was already a famous world traveler. He took control, imposed work and order on the community, and organized raids on close Indian villages to steal food and kidnap natives. After leaving Jamestown, he journeyed for Plymouth merchants and wrote a pamphlet about the lands, calling them New England.
This system was designed when tobacco growers had demand for labor. Headrights were 50 acres grants of land; inhabitants received 100 acres while new settlers had one. Anyone who paid for the passage of immigrants to Virgina would receive an extra headright each arrival= large plantations.
The chief of the Powhatan Indians and the father of Pocahontas. When she was married, Powhatan ceased attacks on the English (overwhelming odds). When he died, his brother secretly planned to eliminate the English. The Powhatans were defeated 20 years later after killing 347 English people.
George Calvert was the first and envisioned established a colony in America both for real estate and a refuge for English Catholics. The next Lord Baltimore (his son) received the charter to establish a colony in the Chesapeake region.
The Pilgrims could not create rich farms on the sandy and marshy soil around Plymouth, so they developed profitable trade of fish and furs.
King Philip's War
The bloodiest and most prolonged encounter between whites and Indians in the 17th century. The Wampanoag rose up to resist the English. King Philip, Metacomet, was ambushed and killed, collapsing fragile alliances between tribes--whites crushed them.Very high casualties on both sides were a result of more advanced rifles.
The Middle Ground
Europeans and Indians living together in regions where neither side was able to establish clear dominance. Carved out ways of living together, with each side making concession to the other
A controversial young minister who lived in Salem, MA. He was a confirmed Separatist who wanted to abandon all allegiance to the Church of England. He was voted to be deported but escaped to the Narragansett. He bought land and created Providence with followers, establishing a government without ties to the church.
Followers of the Society of Friends (mid 17th century), under leaders George Fox and Margaret fell. They rejected predestination and original sin; they believed that all people had divinity within themselves and just had to cultivate it (all could attain salvation). No formal church government, no paid clergy, no wars, and they were unpopular.
Spanish "Middle Grounds"
Spanish colonies in the Southwest created to defend the empire from threats by other European powers (less to increase wealth of it)
A Jamestown planter who tried to cultivate tobacco in Virginia, and soon after, planting spread up and down James.
The royal governor of Virginia dominated the politics of the colony for more than 30 years. He helped open the interior of Virginia by sending explorers across the Blue Ridge Mountains and crushing an Indian uprising (a treaty was made with them for terrirotry
Massachusetts Bay Company
Puritan merchants obtained a grant of land in New England, acquiring a charter from the king to create this and refuge in New England for Puritans
Converted to Quakerism, took up evangelism, and sent repeatedly to prison. After his father died, Charles II granted a territory named Pennsylvania (after Penn's father). Penn soon made PA prospering and the best-known colony because of his recruiting and planning. Indians respected him (he reimbursed them for the land) and they did not have major wars
Caribbean Slave Economy
Southern Carolina had close commercial ties to Barbados. African slavery had taken root on Barbados earlier than any of the mainland colonies, and white Caribbean migrants established a similar slave-based plantation society in Carolina. Demand for labor grew as sugar became popular, so English planters relied more heavily on enslaved Africans (4x as many than whites). Cheaper to buy slaves than protect the well-being of current ones.
Suggested that people had substantial control over their own lives and societies, and the product of some of the great scientific/intellectual discoveries in Europe, encouraging people to look to themselves and their own intellect (not just God) for guidance. It produced interest in education and concern with politics/government
Residents of a town held a yearly town meeting to decide important questions & choose "selectmen" who ran town affairs. Participation was generally for adult male members of the church.
Began in 1730s (climax: 1740s) and emphasized the potential for every person to break away from the past and start anew in one's relationship to God. Led to the division of existing congregations and to the founding of new ones = great cultural upheaval in the colonies
Social Distinctions (stratification)
More than in England, white people in America faced opportunities for social mobility and there were new forms of community that varied greatly in regions. (NEED TO EDIT)
The long journey to the Americas, during which the prisoners were usually kept chained in the bowels of the slave ships and supplied minimal food and water. Name came from being the second of the three legs of the voyage. Substantial commerce in slaves grew in mid 17th century = more available black workers in North America
Mainland colonies trade with England, continental Europe, and the west coast of Africa. Suggested the process of merchants carrying rum and goods from New England to Africa, exchanged them for slaves, whom were transported to the West Indies, and then exchanged slaves for sugar and molasses, which went back to New England to be rum. (A group of adventurous entrepreneurs emerged by the mid-18th century as a distinct merchant class)
Poor Richard's Almanac
The most famous almanac in the 18th century by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. Almanacs circulated throughout the colonies and even sparsely settled lands to the west. Gave America identity; Americans were different from British because they didn't have almanacs.
John Peter Zenger
The 1734-1735 trial of this New York publisher ruled that criticisms of the government were not libelous if factually true. This removed some colonial restrictions on freedom of the press.
Temporary servitude of usually 4-5 years in exchange for passage to America, food, and shelter. Male indentures were to receive clothing, tools, and occasionally land upon completion; in reality, many left with nothing. This created serious social problems because many (mostly males) had no land, employment, families, and prospects. A decrease in birth rate and improved economic conditions reduced pressure to emigrate= less indentured servants --> relying on African slavery
French Calvinists (~300,000) who left Roman Catholic France for the English colonies after the Edict of Nantes (guaranteed substantial liberties) was revoked in 1685. Complimented the feature of the American population bringing together various races, ethnic groups, and nationalities.
The first American college established in 1636 by Puritan theologians wanting to create a training center for ministers. (Indicated the value of education, but higher education remained only to a few white men)
Salem Witch Trials
The most famous outbreak when adolescent girls charged several West Indian servants steeped in voodoo lore of witchcraft. Hysteria spread throughout town & hundreds (most were women) were accused. 19 put to death before trials ended in 1692. Similar accusations of witchcraft spread through many New England towns, centered around women (many of low social positions, involved in domestic conflicts, accused of other crimes, and considered abrasive by neighbors & some who challenged the gender norms). Reflective of the religious character of New England societies.
Outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all and preached the traditional Puritan ideas of absolute sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. (Led to the division of existing congregations and to the founding of new ones)
Colonial assemblies passed "slave codes", so permanent servitude (slavery) became legal in the 18th century. White masters had almost absolute authority over their slaves, and color was what determined whether a person was subject to the slave codes (not caring of mixed race over pure Africans).
In 1739, 100 blacks rose up, seized weapons, killed several whites, and attempted to escape the south to Florida. The uprising was quickly crushed, and most participants were executed. (Slaves were often resistant of their masters)
When ministers preached sermons of despair deploring the signs of waning piety. The progress of science and free thought caused some colonists to doubt traditional religious beliefs--New Englanders thought declension of piety was a serious problem.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade settlers to go beyond the Appalachian Mountains (ineffective). British authorities failed to enforce limits to expansion, so in 1768, agreements with western tribes pushed the permanent boundary farther west. (Failed to stop the white from advancing)
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams proposed this in Boston to publicize the grievances against England. Other colonies followed MA's lead so the spirit of dissent was kept alive through the 1770s.
Sugar Act of 1764
Raised duty on sugar and lowered duty on molasses. Also established new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers (thus cutting them off from sympathetic local juries)
Sons of Liberty
Largest mob who rose up against the Stamp Act. They terrorized stamp agents in Boston, burned stamps, and attacked pro-British aristocrats (like Thomas Hutchinson whose house was pillaged and destroyed)
1) Closing the port of Boston 2) Reduced powers of self-government in MA 3) Permitting royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England 4) Providing for the quartering of troops by colonists These backfired and sparked new resistance up and down the coast.
The English secretary of state (future prime minister) who brought the war for the first time fully under British control. Commanders began to forcibly enlist colonists (impressment) and seized supplies/shelter generally without compensation--caused friction between British authorities and colonists
Internal Vs. "External" Taxes
External- imports from overseas like lead, paint, paper, and tea Internal- what the Stamp Act taxed Townshend imposed the external taxes so that the colonists wouldn't object. However, all colonies rejected the distinction between the taxes
Delegates from PA, MD, NY, and New England met in Albany in 1754 to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois and approved a proposal by Benjamin Franklin to set up a "general government" managing relations with Indians.
Paxton Boys and Regulators
A band of PA frontiersmen who demanded tax relief and financial support for their defense against Indians. Indicted the grievances against authorities like in London. Regulators were farmers of the upcountry who organized and armed themselves to resist high taxes (revolt was crushed by militia men).
The many boroughs of England that had no representative in Parliament, Ireland, and the colonies--all were represented in the Parliament at London .
Lexington and Concord
NEED TO EDIT Not clear if these were the first battles of a war, but the War for Independence had begun.
Seven Years' War
Late 1750s and early 1760s. Confirmed England's commercial supremacy and cemented its control of the settled regions of North America. Also called the French and Indian War, it was the final stage in a long struggle among the three principal powers (English, French, and Iroquois)
Clashes between British soldiers and local workers were frequent. A mob of dockworkers began pelting sentries with rocks and snowballs, so several British soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 people. British soldiers were found guilty of only manslaughter, but many Americans were convinced soldiers did official murder.
Imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies (newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses). Led to British officials collecting more than 10x as much annual revenue in America as they had before 1763--clearly for England to raise revenue from colonies without consent of colonial assemblies.
Confirmed parliamentary authority over colonies "in all cases whatsoever", but in rejoicing, most Americans paid little attention to the ominous declaration of Parliament's power
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except Georgia in September 1774 met in PA 1) Rejected plans for a colonial union under British authority 2) Endorsed moderate statement of grievances (addressed king as "Most Gracious Sovereign" and a demand for the repeal of all oppressive legislation passed since 1763) 3) Approved a series of resolutions (military preparations be made for defense against a possible attack by British troops in Boston) 4) Agreed to a series of boycotts to stop all trade with Great Britain ("Continental Association" to see agreements were enforced) 5) Delegates agreed to meet against the following spring
Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty
(133) Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1786 that called for complete separation of church and state. Americans believed religion should play some role in government, but they didn't want to give special privileges to a particular denomination (church privileges stripped away).
Land Ordinance of 1785
(135) The Congress' system for surveying and selling western lands. Revenue from federally reserved sections supported creation of a public school.
(137) 1787 response to criticism of selling best land to Ohio/Scioto Companies before selling to the public. This abandoned the ten districts established in 1784 and created a single Northwest Territory of northern Ohio lands (divided into 3-5 territories). Minimum of 60,000 people for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion and the right to trial by jury, and prohibited slavery throughout.
Thomas Paine, "Common Sense"
(116) Pamphlet crystalizing colonists' feelings that independence was the only remaining option in January 1776. Wanted to turn American anger away from parliamentary measure and towards the English constitution. (Common sense for Americans to break completely with political system that inflicted such brutality on its own people) Helped build support for independence in early 1776.
(117) States printed currencies of their own. Inflation soared and Congress soon found that Continental currency was virtually worthless (financing the war mostly came by borrowing from other nations)
Battle of Saratoga
(121) John Burgoyne campaigned to divide the US in two (New England from south). Easily seized Fort Ticonderoga but was defeated twice after--October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered. Turning point of the war and a setback for Iroquois leaders (large Iroquois groups fled to Canada)
(124) Henry Clinton named him British commander in the South. His surrender in 1781 ended significant hostilities in North America.
Battle of Yorktown
(125) American and French troops had Cornwallis surrender on October 17, 1781. It was the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War, as the British government negotiated an end to the conflict.
(126) Expected the British to win the war, so they were hounded by Patriots and harassed by legislative and judicial actions (100,000 fled). Those who fled to Canada established the first English-speaking community in Quebec.
(127) VA and MD permitted slaveowners to free their slaves if they wished. This was the occasional challenge to slavery by white southerners but still, white support for slavery survived.
(129) Chief of Cherokee who launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in 1776 (in western Carolinas and Virginia). Patriot militias ravaged Cherokee lands, forcing the chief and his followers to flee west. Those who remained agreed to a new treaty which gave up more land.
(130) Wrote to husband, John Adams, for new protections against abusive and tyrannical men in 1776.
Judith Sargent Murray
(130) Leading essayist of the late 18th century who wrote in 1779 women's mind were as good as those of men and that girls as well as boys therefore deserved access to education. Little changed because although unmarried women had some rights, married women had none.
Articles of Confederation
(116, 134) November 1777, Congress adopted a plan for union which confirmed the existing weak, decentralized system. Broad disagreements over the plan became evident; small states wanted equal state representation, but large states wanted representation based on population. New York and Virginia had to give up western claims before the Articles were approved (effect in 1781)
Battle of Fallen Timbers
(137) General Anthony Wayne led 4,000 soldiers into the Ohio Valley in 1794 and defeated the Indians. As a result, negotiations resumed & a year later, Miami signed Treaty of Greenville that ceded substantial new lands to the US in exchange for formal acknowledgement of claim to the territory they retained.
(138-139) Former captain in the continental army, Daniel Shays issued demands (paper money, tax relief, a moratorium on debts, and abolition of imprisonment for debt) that dissidents in CT and MA rallied behind. It was a failure (although producing some concessions to farmers); Shays and his lieutenants were sentenced to death but pardoned. MA offered some tax relief and postponement of debt payments. *Added urgency to the movement to produce a new, national constitution.
Basis was produced by the "grand committee" chaired by Franklin and with one delegate from each state. Called for two-house legislature (lower: states represented by pop & slaves were 3/5 of a free person. upper: two members each state). Accepted in 1787, and stopped govt from stopping slave trade for 20 years. Left lots of unresolved issues (def. of citizenship, list of individual rights)
Bill of Rights
In 1789, Congress approved 12 amendments and 10 were ratified by the states by 1791. Nine placed limitations on the new government by forbidding to infringe on fundamental rights (freedom of religion, speech, & the press)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Used ideas of John Locke and the Tenth Amendment to argue that federal govt had been formed by a contract among the states and possessed only certain delegated powers. Republicans did not win wide support for nullification idea, but rose dispute with Federalists to a national crisis. Entire nation became bitterly politicized and state legislatures resembled battlegrounds
James Madison devised a plan for a new "national" government. This plan shaped the agenda of the convention from the moment Edmund Randolph of Virginia proposed the Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary government. Less agreement because of two houses (lower: states represented in proportion to pop. upper: elected by lower)
Critics of Federalists (implying they had nothing to offer but opposition) led by Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams. Believed they were defenders of the true principles of the Revolution--thought the Constitution lacked a bill of rights. However, ratification proceeded 1787-1788
Alien and Sedition Acts
Placed new obstacles for foreigners wishing to became US citizens and strengthened president's hand in dealing with aliens. (Discouraged immigration and encouraged foreigners to leave) Allowed govt to prosecute those engaged in sedition against govt. Republicans thought these were a Federalist campaign to destroy them. (Arrested/Convicted ten newspaper editors who criticized Federalists in govt)
New Jersey Plan
Smaller states might hav no members at the upper house (Virginia Plan), so William Paterson of NJ said for one house legislature (all states w/ equal representation) but give Congress ability to tax and regulate commerce. Rejected this plan but permitted members of upper house (the Senate) to be elected by legislatures.
The Federalist Papers
Under the joint pseudonym "Publius", Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (political philosophers) wrote essays explaining the meaning and virtues of the Constitution.
In 1786, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison (Virginia) and five state delegates convened in an interstate conference on commercial question. Decided to meet in Philadelphia the next year, and George Washington's support (due to Shays' Rebellion) gave he meeting wide credibility.
Hamilton's Bank Bill
Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a national bank that provided loans and currency to businesses, give govt a safe place for depositing federal funds, facilitate collection of taxes, and provide a stable center to the nation's small banking system. Required new sources of revenue (so proposed tax on alcohol and imports). Argued over because Congress had no authority to create one (not in Constitution), but Congress agreed (taxes as well). Led to small farmers complaining--organized political opposition arose.
Hamilton's Report on Manufactures
In 1791, Hamilton outlined a plan for growth of industry and spoke of the advantages to society of a healthy manufacturing sector. This showed that the Federalists offered more than a stable new government. They offered a vision of a wealthy, enlightened ruling class, a vigorous independent commercial economy and a thriving manufacturing sector in America.
Charges that said John Marshall stayed up until midnight on his last day in office to finish signing the new judges' commissions. Nation was believed to be saved from tyranny
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress provided for a Supreme Court of six members and system of lower district courts and courts of appeal. Gave power to make the final decision with the constitutionality of state laws.
Chief of Justice John Jay was instructed to secure compensation for the recent British assaults on American shipping, to demand withdrawal of British forces from their posts, and to negotiate a commercial treaty with Britain. Ultimately failed to achieve goals (1794), but settled conflict with Britain (avoiding war). Provided undisputed American sovereignty over Northwest and produced satisfactory commercial relationship.
Mobilized an organization of Revolutionary War veterans (tammany Society) to serves as a Republican political machine. The party carried New York by a large majority, and Jefferson was elected. He was too unreliable to trust with the presidency
Adams delted the names of the three French agents and designated them as Messrs (X, Y, Z). Provoked widespread outrage at France's actions and strong popular support for the Federalists' response. 1789-90, US was engaged in an undeclared war with France.
Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney that was signed in 1795. Spain recognized the right of Americans navigating the Mississippi, agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida, and commanded authorities to prevent Indians in Florida from launching raids across the border.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Federalists reduced number of Supreme Court justiceships by 1 but greatly increased number of federal judgeships. Appointed Federalists to newly created positions and leading Federalist, John Marshall, was to be chief justice.
Marbury v Madison
Marbury (midnight appointment) was refused by Madison to receive his commission, and the court said they had no right to force Madison's hand
Help trained the new generation for citizenship. Helped speed the creation of female academies throughout the nation (1789 Mass required public schools serve females and other states gradually followed)
John Quincy Adams
Along with Clay and gallatin, he led the American delegation. The final treaty did very little except end the fighting itself
Second Great Awakening
1801 there was a religious comeback...fighting spread of religious rationalism (Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists). Greatest surge of evangelical fervor since 1st GA and members were embracing revivalism)
Napolean offered this because he didn't have resources to have to resources to establish empire in America. Livingston and Monore went to Paris (although had no authority) and accepted. US paid $15 million, grant exclusive commercial rights, and incorporated Louisiana people. Jefferson was pleased, but embarrassed because Constitution gave no direct authority. Congress approved and Louisiana went under US control (accepted and organized)
Prohibited American ships from leaving the US for any foreign port. Widely evaded, ut effective enough to create serious depression--hardest hit were merchants and shipowners (Federalists). Persuaded England to repeal blockage, but repeal came too late to prevent war.
Battle of New Orleans
British forces were no match for Andrew Jackson's well-protected men. US and Britain signed a peace treaty weeks before this battle
Chief of Justice who shaped many rulings and strengthened judiciary
God existed, but was no longer directed involved
Toll road of crushed stone that inspired difficult process of turnpike building, as horse-drawn vehicles could not travel at incline. There were complicated roads, and mt. roads were not built until gov. involved.
Aaron Burr supported and ran for governor (rumors were that he planned to sucede)
Americans refused Brits to search, opened fire, and Brits took four men. America wanted revenge, but Jefferson expelled Brit ships and demanded an end to impressment. Instead, compensation was offered, but they refused to renounce impressment.
The Shooting Star chief of the Shawnee emerged as the leader of these military efforts.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Disillusioned many of the Prophet's followers and Tecumesh returned to find confederacy in disarray. Gov Harrison thought the only solution to make the West safe by driving British out of Canada and annex that province to the US.
Francis Scott Key
Recorded pride in the moment by writing Star Spangled Banner (old English drinking song).
Native Americans (uncivilized but not uncivilizable). Hoped that schooling Indians would "uplift" tribes, but there were no efforts for African Americans.
Morocco, Algiers, Punis, Tripoli. They demanded annual tribute in exchange for protection; Jefferson was reluctant.Tripoli was unhappy, Am. Flag chopped down (war), which stopped payment of tribute, but paid the ransom
Extreme Federalists (Essex Junto) thought only recourse for NE was to secede from the Union and form "northern confederacy". For any hope, it would have to include NY and NJ as well, but Alexander Hamilton refused. Turned to Aaron Burr, who dueled Hamilton (H died).
William Henry Harrison
Advocate of westernland development... Harrison Law Land meant it was easier for white settlers to acquire farms. Gov of Indiana to propose to Indians to either convert or move (give up all tribal lands & US acquired lands). (Brits in Canada became defensive and befriended Indians)
Eager young congressmen who highly supported war
Physicians started to take over deliveries
Invented the steamboat; "Clermont" (1807) was large enough to carry passengers
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson acquired Lewis (who acquired Clark) to investigate geography and Indians. 1804-1806 Lewis & Clary with Sacajawea as interpretator from St. Louis
British navy to its people: "floating hell"--most had to be impressed into service. Many would escape to American navy, but British raided ships and took both Brits and Am.
Macon's Bill No.2
(185) Reopened free commercial relations with Britain and France
Elected Speaker of House in 1811 and appointed John Calhoun of SC to Committee of Foreign Affairs. Declaration of war against Britain
Delegates from NE states met in Hartford to discuss grievances against Madison admin. Reasserted right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution (to protect NE from growing influence of South and West)
(204) Spain ceded all of Floride to the US and gave up claim to territory north of the 42nd parallel in Pacific Northwest. American govt gave up claims to Texas--for a time.
(205) Combined Maine and Missouri proposals into a single bill; Maine would be free and Missouri a slave state. Happy resolution of a danger to the Union.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(206) 1819 Marshall confirmed "implied powers" of Congress by upholding the constitutionality of the Bank of US. Unpopular in the South/West (states tried to drive out of business). States taxing could lead to them taxing it to death.
Worcester v. Georgia
(208) Georgia tried to regulate access to Cherokee country. Marshall invalidated law, and only federal govt had authority (empowered tribe like states, but under federal rule)
(209) 1823 JQA wrote Europe to stay our of LA (could not enforce, but British could... it was important to trade with America) recognized country's independence
(201,4) Commanded American troops along Florida... invaded and seized Spanish forts at St. Marks and Pensacola (Seminole War). Demonstrated that US could easily take Florida by force
Second Bank of the United States
(196) More capital and couldn't forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel state banks to issue only sound notes.
(196) End of war dimmed prospects for A industry. Congress passed a tariff law to limit competition from abroad (cotton cloth).
John Jacob Astor, America Fur Co.
(200) After War of 1812, JJAF Co extended operations from Great Lakes westward to Rockies. Trappers increased and mountain men closely bound up with market economy, which bulk of profits flowed to merchants, not trappers.
Era of Good Feelings
(201-203) Expansion of economy, growth of white settlement and trade in West, and creation of states all reflected rising spirit of nationalism.
(201) Decline of Federalists and no important international threats, so Monroe attempted to end partisan divisions and factional disputes.
John Quincy Adams
(202-203) Great diplomat and committed nationalist (promoted American expansion) Secretary of state, Adams began negotiations with Spain over Florida.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(206) 1819 Further expanded contract clause of Constitution. Republicans tried to revise Dart C's charter to convert from private to state uni. Daniel Webster argued... placed important restrictions on the ability of state govts to control corporations.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(207) Court strengthened Congress' power to regulate commerce. Important issue was whether Congress' power to give Gibbons a license superseded NY's power to grant Odgen monopoly. Increased federal role in promoting economic growth and protected corporations from local govt interference.
Tariff of Abominations
(211) Manufactured goods protected and (in South) raw materials cost more. When Adams signed, the South was angered
Cult of Domesticity/Separate Spheres
Middle class women developed a distinctive female culture. "Lady's" literature emerged... purely domestic concerns. Provided women greater material comfort than in the past and placed high value on "female virtues". Women outside the household were seen as a lower-class. Domestic service became frequent source of female employment.
Viewed growing foreign population with alarm. Native American Association (1837) became NA Party (1845) and joined other nativist groups to form the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (1850). Demands included banning Catholics or alien from holding public office, enacting more restrictive naturalization laws, and establishing literacy test for voting.
Simple ditch 40ft wide and 4ft deep with towpaths. Greatest construction projet Americans had ever undertaken. Provided a route to the Great Lakes and gave NY access to Chicago and growing markets of the West. Cheaper for western farmers to ship crops east, and inspired water connections between Lake Erie and Ohio River. Increased white settlement in the Northwest.
Corporations- Combined resources of large # of shareholders developed rapidly in 1830s. LL- Individual stockholders risked losing only the value of their own investment (and not corporation's larger losses) if enterprise failed. Made possible for larger manufacturing and business enterprises.
Common in MA, the system enlisted young women (farmers' daughters in late teens/20s). Well fed, carefully supervised, had clean housing, and had relatively generous wages. Manufacturers could not maintain this for long and women protested. Switched over to immigrants for labor
Commonwealth v. Hunt/Craft Unions
Greatest legal victory (1842) in which state supreme court declared unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon (employers continued to resist). Manufacturers replaced striking workers with eager immigrants, which led workers channeling resentments into internal bickering. Transformed social relationships?
Against immigration. Members of the movement who crated a new political organization, the American Party, after the 1852 elections. Did well in Penn, NY, and won control of state government in Mass. After 1854, the party soon disappeared.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
First company to begin railroad operations, opening a 13mi stretch of track in 1830. By 1836, more than a thousand miles of track had been laid in 11 states.
Samuel F.B. Morse
1832 Morse found a way to send signals along an electrical cable (using pulses of electricity) and developed Morse code. Congress constructed an experimental telegraph line (1843) which worked...by 1860, more than 50,000mi of wire connected most parts of the country. Helped prevent accidents and benefitted American Journalism.
These poorly paid construction gangs performed heavy, unskilled work. Many lived in grim conditions that endangered health (of families, too). Factories became large, noisy, unsanitary, and dangerous. Women and children (no matter what skills) earned less than men.
Some artisans were unable to compete with new factory-made goods. Skilled workers formed societies, which failed, but did not end efforts by workers to gain control over their productive lives.
(1850s) Result of pressure from high society members who wanted an elegant setting for daily carriage rides. Wealthy people looked for ways to display wealth, showing inequality?
Founded Mount Holyoke in MA as an academy for women. Women students were seldom encouraged to pursue education above the primary level, and they weren't accepted in any college/uni until 1837.
Cyrus McCormick's reaper
Took the place of a sickle, cradle, and hand labor which quickened harvesting pace. By 1860, more than 100,000 reapers were in use. Revolution in grain production.
The planter aristocracy exercised power and influence far in excess of its numbers. The aristocratic ideal also found reflection in the definition of a special role for southern white women (men adopted "chivalry")
Forbade slaves to hold property, to leave their masters' premises without permission to be out after dark, to congregate with other slaves (except church), to cary firearms, to testify in court against whites, or to strike a white person (even self-defense... but whites could kill slaves). Whites could not teach slaves to read/write or legalize slave marriages/divorces. Anyone with a trace was black. Enforcement was uneven.
The shuffling, grinning, head-scratching, deferential slave who acted what he recognized as the role the white world expected. Dominant response of blacks was complex (combo of adaptation and resistance).
Slave preacher who led an uprising, killing 60 whites before overpowered (blacks were executed). Virginia State laws governing slavery became more rigid in response to the fears the revolt created among whites.
By the Civil War, coton constituted nearly two-thirds of the total export trade of the US. Drew settlers to lower South and hundreds of thousands of slaves moved from upper South to cotton states. Showed growing dominance of cotton in southern economy
De Bow's Commercial Review
Called for southern commercial expansion and economic independence from the North. (Wasn't that successful)
Varieties of slavery
Some slaves lived in almost prison-like conditions (rigidly and harshly controlled by masters), while most enjoyed considerable flexibility and autonomy.
Gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside Richmond, but two gave the plot away and Virginia militia stopped before it could begin. Slave revolts were rare but scared whites.
Blacks throughout the South developed their own version of Christianity (more emotional, reflected African customs/practices). Used images to express dreams of present freedom.
Created more politically challenging music in privacy of their own religious services. Africans in America not only expressed faith but also lamented hope for freedom.
Simple, common language that retained some African words but drew mostly from English. Gradually grew more sophisticated but some features survived.
(311) Ideology that reflected growing pride of American nationalism and the idealistic vision of social perfection.
(317) Debate over the boundary between Texas and Mexico. Texas said Rio Grande and Mexico said Nueces River. Polk sent a small army to protect against Mexicans.
Compromise of 1850
(323) Henry Clay presented... CA as a free state, formation of territorial governments in rest of lands from Mexico (no slavery restrictions), abolition of slave trade (not slavery), and new/effective fugitives slave law. Launched debate for months. New leaders took on and produced a compromise. Tyler died and Fillmore supported... victory of self-interest.
Kansas-Nebraska Act/Bleeding Kansas
(327,8) Douglas agreed to divide area into Nebraska and Kansas and became a law in May 1854. Produced immediate, sweeping, and ominous political consequences: destroyed Whigs, divided northern Democrats, and spurred creation of a new sectional (in composition and creed) party. Led to Republican Party. "Bleeding Kansas" was a powerful symbol of sectional controversy.
(328) In North. Proper structure of society centered on "free soil" and "free labor." White northerners believed existence of slavery was dangerous because of threats to whites. Right of all citizens to own property, control labor, and have access to opportunities for advancement.
Dred Scott Decision
(330) Dred Scott was a slave but taken into free territory, so he sued and 1850 circuit court declared him free. John Sanford (brother of the master) appealed to state supreme court which reversed decision. Scott appealed to fed... defeat for antislavery movement (not a citizen). FED GOVT WAS POWERLESS TO ACT ON ISSUE
Battle of San Jacinto
(312) 1836 Sam Houston defeated Mexican army and took Gen. Santa Anna prisoner, who signed a treaty giving Texas independence.
The Oregon Trail
(314) 2000 miles. Stretched from Independence across the Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. Arduous journey that was a very communal experience. Expansion pressures pushed US into war.
James K. Polk
(316) Democrat nominated because he wanted to re-occupy Oregon and re-annex Texas (won 1844 election). Texas became a state and resolved Oregon question
Fifty-four forty or fight!
(317) Conflict between US and Canada. Americans hoped to draw the northern boundary of their part of Oregon. British accepted 49th parallel.
(318) 1846 US declared war. Whigs charged that Polk deliberately put country in conflict (and lied about attack).
Stephen W. Kearny
(318) Polk became wary of Zach Tyler, so in 1846 Kearny was sent. Brought disparate American forces together under his command and by autumn 1846 captured California.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(319) Nicholas Trist negotiated settlement with Mexico in 1848. Mexico ceded California & New Mexico to US and agreed on Rio Grande as the boundary.
(321) Nominated by Whigs for being the hero of Mexico War but without political experience in 1848 election (he won by narrow margin).
(321, 2) For keeping slavery out of territories (some were for blacks and others were for whites). Attracted the support of large numbers of the white population of the North.... Emerged in 1848 by opponents of slavery & chose Martin Van Buren. Elected 10 members to Congress and signaled the inability of existing parties to contain political passion slavery was creating. Early sign of collapse in 1850s.
(322) California migrants who abandoned farms, jobs, homes, and families for overland trails. 95% white men and society in California was volatile because of the absence of white women, children/families. Tiny fraction found gold, but many stayed and helped agricultural and urban populations of the territory.
(326) James Gadsden persuaded Mexican government to accept $10 million in exchange for parts of Arizona and New Mexico. Only accentuated sectional rivalry.
Stephen A. Douglas
(326) Leader of northwestern Democrats who wanted the railroad for Illinois' section. Introduced 1854 bill to organize a huge new territory (Nebraska).
(327) Won enough seats in Congress to permit them (in combination with allied Know-Nothings) to organize House of Reps.
(328) Abolitionists who moved to Kansas to make it a free state. Gathered 6 followers and in one night murdered pro-slavery settlers. Potttawatomie Massacre.
(328) Member of House of Reps from SC. Brooks beat Charles Sumner for his speech. Became a hero in the South (while Sumner became a hero in the North as a martyr of South barbarism) and returned to SC and was successfully reelected.
Slave power conspiracy
(329) Wanted to destroy northern capitalism and replace with a closed, aristocratic system of the South... only solution was to fight spread of slavery and extend the nation's democratic (free labor) ideals to all the country. Republican Party
(330) From Penn and nominated for Democratic party because he wasn't associated with "Bleeding Kansas." Won 1856 election but was timid and indecisive during financial panic and a depression.
(332) Opposition to slavery was fundamental (not an abolitionist but believed it was morally wrong). Right after his election, process of disunion began (Civil War!) because white southerners knew their position in Union was hopeless.
(338,9) James Buchanan refused to yield when SC demanded it. 1861, he sent an unarmed merchant ship with addition tropps and supplies, but Confederate guns turned it back. Confederacy established (neither was ready for war)
(342) 1863 Congress passed a draft law... opposition was widespread among laborers, immigrants, and Democrats. Erupted into violence (rioted for four days in NYC 1863--left over 100 dead).
The Emancipation Proclamation
(344) 1863 Lincoln declared forever free the slaves inside the Confederacy. Did not apply to Union slave states (nor those under Union control) but clearly established the war was being fought not to preserve the Union but to eliminate slavery.
(350) 1864 Lincoln's general. He was trusted to command the war effort because he shared Lincoln's belief in unremitting combat and in making enemy armies/resources the target (not territory).
Robert E. Lee
(358) Replaced Confederate troop leader.... Recalled Stonewall Jackson from Shenandoah valley. Launched a new offensive (Battle of Seven Days) to cut McClellan off base, but McClellan fought across to set a new base.
(363) Lee withdrew from Gettysburg... major turning point in the war. Now Confederate forces were not able to seriously threaten Northern territory.
William T. Sherman, "March to the Sea"
(365) William Sherman left Atlanta with army for sixty-mile-wide swath of desolation across Georgia. Wanted to deprive Confederate army of war materials and railroad communications but also break the will of Southerners by burning towns and plantations. Continued through SC and a small force didn't do anything....
(339) Proposed reestablishing Missouri Compromise line and extending westward to Pacific (slavery prohibited north and permitted south). However, the compromise required Republicans to abandon that slavery not be allowed to expand, so it was rejected (nothing resolved)
(340) 1862 Permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to purchase 160 acres of public land for a small fee after living on it for five years.
Morrill Land Grant Act
(340) Transferred public acreage to state govts which could sell land and use proceeds to finance public education. Led to new state colleges and universities.
(342) Printing paper currency not backed by gold or silver but the good faith and credit of govt. Value fluctuated. Largest source of financing for the war was loans.
(343) Peace Democrats (Lincoln's greatest political problem). Lincoln ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters and suspended right of speedy trail. 1862 said all persons who discouraged enlistments were subject to martial law.
(344) Areas not affected by EP=antislavery strengthened. 1865 Congress abolished slavery in all parts of the US.
The Sanitary Commission
(345) Presented nursing as a profession that made use of the same maternal, nurturing roles women played as wives and mothers. Saw the war as an opportunity to win support.
Confederate States of America
(346) Confederate constitution was almost identical to US Constitution with exceptions... acknowledging sovereignty of individual states (not secession) and sanctioned slavery (abolition impossible).
(346) President from Mississippi elected by public without opposition for six-year terms. Confederate govt dominated throughout war by men of political center. Displayed punctiliousness about legal and constitutional requirements
(348) Confederacy subjected all white males between 18-35 to military service for three years. Provision aroused opposition from poorer whites so repealed in 1863. However, it was successful at first
Monitor and Merrimack
1862 Vessels met in battle... neither sunk but Monitor put an end to Virginia's raids and preserved the blockade. (?)
(353) Outstanding American secretary of state. Had assistance from American minister to London... gap of diplomatic sills of the Union and Confederacy proved to be a decisive factor in the war.
The Trent affair
(354) Diplomatic crisis in late 1861. Two Confederate diplomats slipped through Union blackade to Cuba and went on English steamer (Trent) for England. American frigate stopped British vessel, arrested diplomats and went to Boston, but British demanded the release... didn't want war, so they complied.
First Battle of Bull Run
(356) July 21 almost succeeded in dispersing the Confederate forces but Southerners counterattacks and panicked Union troops. Severe blow to Union morale and the president's confidence in officers.
(361) Technically, a Union victory, but McClellan squandered an opportunity to destroy Confederate army. In November, Lincoln removed him.
(361) 1863 U.S. Grant attacked Vicksburg from the rear. Vicksburg surrendered... Confederacy now split in two... Victories on Mississippi were one of the great turning points of the war. ??
(367) April 9 surrendered what was left of forces. Long war was now effectively over (Jefferson Davis captured and Southern resistance collapsed)
(377) Offered first constitutional definition of American citizenship. Everyone born/naturalized in US was automatically a citizen, having "privileges and immunities" by Constitution (no other requirements). Penalties to states that denied suffrage to adult MALE inhabitants. Prohibited former Congress members who aided Confederacy from holding sate/fed office unless 2/3 Congress voted to pardon. Radicals are now more confident and determined.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(395,6) Case about Louisiana law requiring segregated seating on railroads,. Court held that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if accommodations were equal.
Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
(372) Lenient policy, believing Southern Unionists (former Whigs) could be the center of new, loyal state governments in South. Announced Dec. 1863 and helped white Southerners who pledged loyalty & abolition of slavery. Extended suffrage to educated, property-owning, or Union army-serving blacks. (Radicals didn't like)
Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
(375) "Restoration" summer of 1865. Offered amnesty to Southerners who pledged loyalty. Resembled Wade-Davis Bill. Radicals in Congress would not recognize these govts (hardening northern attitudes)
(376) "Presidential Reconstruction" continued until Dec. 1865... (EDIT?)
(378) Additional requirement for readmission of states. Forbade states and fed government to deny suffrage to any citizen based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." 1870.
(382) Most black agricultural laborers became tenants of white landowners. they worked their own plots of land and paid their landlords fixed rent/share of crops. Blacks enjoyed physical independence from landlords and had sense of working their own land. Benefitted landlords by relieved cost of slaves and responsibility of workers' well-being.
(383) Blacks and poor whites were virtually imprisoned by this. New credit system centered on local country stores (owned by planters/merchants). Farmers did not have steady cash flow, so they relied on merchants' credit for purchases. Farmers gave lien (claim) on crops for loans--trapped in cycle of debt.
(386,7) Debtors wanted govt to reddem fed war bonds with greenbacks, increasing money in circulation. Grant and Republicans wanted "sound" currency (gold reserves). 1879: greenback $ redeemed by govt and replaced with certificates (pegged to price of gold), but could not easily expand. Money issue remained one the most controversial/enduring issues in late 1800s politics.
Compromise of 1877
(388,9) First step toward developing stable, permanent Republican Party in the South. Failed though. South changed in some ways in favor of Compromise, but Democratic Party prevailed.
Solid Democratic South
(391) Although many white Southern leaders sympathized with Republican economic polities, they resented Reconstruction (so no support of Republicans). Survives until mid 1900s
Booker T. Washington, "Atlanta Compromise"
(395) Chief spokesman for commitment to education/founder and president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Born into slavery and worked his way out after getting education... urged other blacks to follow (cautious and hopeful). Outlined Atlanta Compromise...
Jim Crow Laws
(397) State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. Stripped blacks of many modest social, economic, and political gains made (inhibited black agitation for equal rights). "Separate but equal"
(371) Established in March 1865. An agency of the army which distributed food to millions of former slaves. Also established schools... made modest effort to settle blacks on lands of their own (not permanent--far too small).
(374) Radical Republicans made this. Called for pres to appoint provisional governor for each conquered state (majority pop pledged loyalty... could summon state constitutional convention). Abolish slavery, disenfranchise Confederate leaders, and repudiate debts by state govts during war. Left question of political rights for blacks up to states. Passed 1864 but Lincoln vetoed... Lincoln had to accept some
(376) Throughout the South, this authorized local officials to apprehend unemployed blacks, fine them, and hire them out to private employers. Some forbade blacks to own/lease farms or take jobs other than plantation workers/domestic servants (like slaves). Congress responded with extending Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Act
Civil Rights Act of 1866
(377) Declared blacks as citizens of the US and gave fed govt power to intervene state affairs to protect citizens' rights. Johnson vetoed, but Congress overrode.
Impeachment of Johnson
(379) Radicals believed Johnson was a major impediment to plans (1867). Impeached when Johnson dismissed SoW Stanton despite Congress' refusal. However, 1868, he was acquitted.
(380) Name for Southern white Republicans who supported Reconstruction and the Republican party. They were former Whigs who were not comfortable in Democratic Party or farmers who lived in remote areas with little/no slavery. Showed corruption in the South
(380) Name that Southerners gave to Northerners who moved to the South. White men from the North (veterans of Union army) who thought South as more promising frontier than West so they settled there at war's end as hopeful planters, businessmen, or professionals. Showed corruption in the South
(385) 1872 campaign political scandals. Key members in Congress (including Grant's vice pres) accepted Crédit Mobilier stock. Second term, some officials operated "whiskey ring" & cheated govt out of taxes... SoW accepted brides to retain Indian ring. Brought rampant corruption to govt.
(387) Criticism when Seward accepted Russian offer to buy Alaska for $7.2 million. 1867, annexed Midway Islands. Expansion
Ku Klux Klan
(388) Secret society established where blacks were a majority/pops were ~equal. Whites used intimidation and violence to undermine Reconstruction regimes. Prevented blacks from voting
(388) 1870 & 1871 Ku Klux Klan Acts prohibited staes from discriminating against votes on race and govt could prosecute crimes under fed law. Seldom enforced, but discourage Klan violence (declined 1872)
Rutherford B. Hayes
(388-390) 1876 Republican nominee who was governor of ohio and champion of civil service reform. Won by 1 electoral vote, withdrew federal troops (letting Democrats take oer remaining Southern state govts), and hoped for a "new Republican"
(391,2) Powerful, conservative oligarchy (Democrats...most of South fell under their control). Redeemers combined a defense of "home rule" and social conservatism with commitment to economic development. Bourbon govts were similar... diminished state services.
Henry Grady, Atlanta Constitution
(392) With other South advocates, he seldom challenged white supremacy but did promote virtues of thrift, industry and progress (were denounced before)
(397) 1890s 80% in South and majority victims were white. Whites controlled black population through terror and intimidation. Rise of lynching shocked white Americans.
Ida B. Wells
(397) Committed black journalists who published series of impassioned articles after her friends were lynched. Launched international antilynching movement (whites both North and South). Goal to punish those responsible for lynchings.
(406) Chinese communities in cities. Throughout the West, revolved around organizations... led by prominent merchants...
Chinese Exclusion Act
(407) 1882 Congress' response to political pressure and growing violence, banning Chinese immigration to US for 10 yrs and barred Chinese from becoming naturalized citizens. Renewed in 1892 & permanent in 1902. Chinese pop declined by +40%
Frederick Jackson Turner
(414) Historian 1893 wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." Claimed experience of western expansion had stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy. Kept opportunities for advancement alive, and made Americans distinctive people.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(417, 421) Corrupt/incompetent agents administered reservations. Dawes Act: Relentlessly promoted idea of assimilation. Tried to move Indians onto their own land, and took Indian children away from families to white boarding schools. Encouraged Christianity
Sand Creek Massacre
(418) 1864 Chivington led volunteer militia force to unsuspecting Black Kettle's camp. Massacred 133 people (105 women and children) 1868 Custer killed him and his people.
Ghost Dance, Wounded Knee Massacre
(420) Inspired ecstatic, mystical visions (retreat of white people from plains and restoration of great buffalo herds). Scared whites. 1890 Seventh Cavalry and Sioux fought (killing 40 whites and 200 Indians). One-sided massacre, as whites used machine guns.
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
(421) Gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and allotment of tracts to individual owners. (160acres to head, 80 to single adult/orphan, 40 to dependent child). Adults got US citizenship, but couldn't gain title to property for 25 years.
Hamlin Garland, agrarian malaise
(424) Reflected growing disillusionment. 1891 Wrote that agrarian frontier was "the Golden West..." but now bright promise faded. Rural life was crushing human spirit... painfully aware position was declining in relation to rising urban-industrial society
Taos Indian Rebellion
(403) 1847 Taos Indians rebelled, killing new governor and other Anglo-American officials before subdued by US Army forces. NM remained under military rule for 3 yrs, until US organized territorial govt in 1850.
(404) Chinese indentured servants whose condition was close to slavery. Moved to HI, AU, Latin America, South Africa, & Caribbean... Chinese crossed Pacific in hopes of better lives.
(407) 1862 permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for small fee if they occupied land purchased for 5 yrs and improved it. Believed to create new markets/ouposts of commercial agriculture for growing economy. But it was too small for grazing/grain farming of Great Plains (govt provided some relief)
(409) Mining boom began 1860 and flourished until 1890s. Prosperity was short-lived
(411) 1866 Texas cattle ranchers drove combined herds north (suffered heavy losses), but proved cattle could be driven to distant markets. Established the first, tentative link between isolated cattle breeders of west Texas and booming urban markets of East.
(411) Sheep breeders brought flocks onto range to compete for grass... farmers put fences.... Sheepmen and cattlemen, ranchers and farmers erupted out of tensions between competing groups.
Rocky Mountain School, Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran
(413) Celebrated new West in grandiose canvases (some toured eastern/midwestern states and attracted enormous crowds) Vision of the Great West that inspired tourism among people. 1880s/90s resort hotels opened
Owen Wister, The Virginian
(413) 1902 romanticized the cowboy's supposed freedom from traditional social constraints, his affinity with nature, and supposed propensity for violence. Powerful symbol of "frontier". More novels/stories of cowboy life appeared.
Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West show
(414) Popular Wild West show traveling throughout US and Europe. Exploited fame and romanticized life of cowboy through reenactments of Indian battles and displays of horsemanship/riflery. Confirmed popular image of the west as romantic/glamourous (kept image alive)
Battle of the Little Bighorn
(419) 1876 Supposed round up warriors/Sioux and force back to reservation. But, large army (2,500 tribal warriors) surprised Custer and his regiment, surrounded them, and killed every man.
(419) Leader of some Indians who killed four white settler on the way to reservation. American troops pursued only to be driven off in a battle at White Bird Canyon. He eventually gave up.
(419) Cochise's successor who fought for a decade, establishing bases in mountains of Arizona and Mexico. Leaded raid against white outposts (number of Apache dwindled). 1886 knew he was outnumbered & surrendered.
(42) Revolutionized fencing... now instead of wood, metal could be used (edit)
Thomas A. Edison
(429) 1870s Invented the incandescent lamp (lightbulb). Improved generators and built large power plants to furnish electricity to cities. By turn of century, electric power became commonplace (revolutionary innovations)
(429-431) 1870s and 1880s steel production made strides toward eventual dominance in metals industry. Hewitt's open-hearth process led to great quantities and large dimensions of steel. West Penn and east Ohio. Demanded new fuel (industry growing fast)
(432) Frederick Winslow Taylor... "Scientific management" which industrialists embraced. Made human labor compatible with demands of the machine age and increased employers' control of workplace. Sped up production and made workers more interchangeable... Workers using modern machines could perform simple tasks at greater speed (higher productivity)
Henry Ford, Assembly line
(431,433) 1896 Produced first of famous cars...1917 almost 5 millions automobiles in America. Introduced moving assembly line for his automobile plants in 1914. Enabled him to raise wages and reduce hours while cutting base price of Model T (became a standard for other industries)
(435) Risked only the amount of their investments were not liable for any debts the corporation accumulated. Ability to sell stock to broad public allowed entrepreneurs to gain capital and undertake great projects.
Andrew Carnegie, U.S. Steel
(435) 1873 opened steelworks and soon dominated industry. Used stock to finance and created US Steel Corp ($14 billion enterprise controlling almost 2/3 of nation's steel production)
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil
(436) 1870 Formed Standard Oil Company of Ohio & soon acquired 20 of 25 refineries in Cleveland (started expanding horizontally) By 1880s, he established great dominance within petroleum industry that he was the leading symbol of monopoly to nation.
Herbert Spencer, Social Darwinism
(437) Misapplication to human society of Charles Darwin's laws of evolution and natural selection among species. Believed only fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace. Herbert Spencer- first and most important... had prominent American intellectual supporters
Railroad Strike of 1877
(445) Began when eastern railroads had 10% wage ut and expanded into approaching class war. Strikers disrupted rail service, destroyed equipment, and rioted in Pittsburgh & other cities. Pres Hayes sent fed troops to suppress disorders. First major national labor conflict
Terence Powderly, Knights of Labor
(445,6) Founded in 1869 under Uriah Stephens. (No bankers, liquor dealers, and professional gamblers). 8 hr workday and no child labor but more interested in long-range reform of economy. Wanted to replace "wage system" with new "cooperative system" which workers would themselves control workplaces. 1870s were open and expanded 1890s disappeared
Samuel Gompers, American Federation of Labor
(446) Powerful AFL leader. concentrated on wages, hours, and working conditions. Demanded national 8hr workday and called for general strike if goal was not achieved by May 1886 (strikes took place all over nation).
Henry Clay Frick, Homestead strike
(447) 1890 Chief lieutenant... decided with Carnegie that Amalgamated "had to go." Cut wages at Homestead. Union knew it couldn't have successful strike. But 1892 Amalgamated called a stirke.
Eugene V. Debs
(448) American Railway Union leader. Defied fed court after issuing injunction forbidding union to continue strike... Arrested and imprisoned, and strike collapsed.
Alexander Graham Bell
(429) Developed first telephone with commercial capacity. 1900 had 1.35 million telephones and 1920 had 13.3 million. One of the most important innovations (shows rapidly emerging new technologies)
The Wright Brothers
(432) Wilbur and Orville Wright made successful airplane in 1903 NC. Continued improving, but aviation tech was slow in America. American airplanes became significant in Europe during World War I. Commercial flight came 1920s
(435) Combined number of firms engaged in same enterprise into a single corporation (like consolidation of different railroad lines into one company)
(435) Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
Combinations/ pools/ trusts/ corporate mergers
(436) Pool- informal agreements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets. Eventually collapsed. Trust- stockholders transferred stocks to a trustees in exchange for share in the trust. Owners had no direct control over trustees' decisions (only received share of profits combination). Trustees might own few companies but had control over many. Corp Mergers- Changed laws of incorporation to permit companies to buy rivals. "Trusts" became unnecessary.
Willaim Graham Sumner
(437) Promoted similar ideas (that society benefited from elimination of unit and survival of strong/talented) in lectures, articles, and 1906 book "Folkways"
Gospel of Wealth
(438) 1901 book by Andrew Carnegie saying people of wealth should consider all revenues in excess of their own needs "trust funds" to be used for good of community. Industrialists devoted large parts of fortunes to philanthropic works. (private wealth = public blessing)
(439) Famous promoter of success story... Started as minister of small town (had sexual scandals..lol) but moved to NY and wrote +100 novels all about "rags to riches," which captured aspirations of many men.
Socialist Labor Party
(441) Founded in 1870s & led by Daniel De Leon (West Indies immigrant). Never became a major political force... 1901 faction broke away to form American Socialist Party (stronger ties with organized labor)
Henry George, "Single Tax"
(441) California writer/activist. Replacing all other taxes, returning increment to people, destroying monopolies, eliminating poverty, and distributing wealth more equally
Progress and Poverty
(441) 1879 became one of the best-selling nonfiction works in American publishing history. Blamed social problems on ability of few monopolists to grow wealthy as a result of rising land values. Increase land value wasn't cause of owner but "unearned increment" by the growth of society around the land
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
(441) Utopian 1888 that described Bostonian who went to sleep in 1887 and in 2000 there was a new social order where want, politics, and vice were unknown. Single, great trust, controlled by the govt (distributed economy equally among everyone); he labeled it "nationalism"
Labor Contract Law
(443) Permitted industrial employers to pay for passage of workers in advance and deduct amount later from their wages. Repealed in 1885, but employers continued... heightened ethnic tensions within working class
(445) Militant labor organization which sometimes used violence/murdered in battle with coal operators. Instigated by informers and agents employed by mine owners who wanted to ruthlessly suppress unionization
(446) Strike at McCormick Harvester Co... police ordered crowd to disperse & someone threw a bomb, killing 7 policemen and injuring 67 others. Alarming symbol of social chaos and radicalism
(446) Public's code word for terrorism and violence, even though most part were relatively peaceful. Remained frightening concept in American imagination.
(447) Strikebreakers for enabling company to hire nonunion workers. Eventually surrendered and escorted out of town.
(447,8) 1894 Pullman Palace Car Co reduced wages by 25% without reduced rent charged. Workers went on strike and persuaded ARU to support them by refused to handle Pullman cars/equipment... strike stopped after Debs and his associated were arrested and imprisoned.
(454) Some from Canada, Latin America and (for West Coast) China and Japan. Most were from Europe (German/Scandinavian), who arrived with some money/education. Generally lacked capital to buy farmland and education for professions. So, settled in industrial cities doing unskilled jobs.
(461) Originally referred to multiple family rental building, but late 1800s it became a term for slum dwellings. (Most were miserable places)
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
(461) Shocked middle-class Americans with sensational/sensationalized descriptions and pictures of tenement life. Reformers wanted to demolish them without building new housing
Political "machines"/"Urban" Boss
(464) Principal source of assistance (for residents) was the political "machine." Chaotic growth of cities created power vacuum and immigrants had potential voting power. Political boss had to win votes for organization (so loyalty of constituents). Rewarded followers with patronage. Machines were vehicles for making money (not without competition from reform groups though)
D.W. Griffith, The Birth of a Nation
(470) 1900 Americans were attracted to early movies (plotless films of trains/waterfalls). This 1915 silent film carried motion picture into a new era. Introduced serious (racist) plots and elaborate productions to filmmaking. First truly mass entertainment medium.
William Randolph Hearst
(472) 1914 controlled nine newspapers and two magazines (powerful owner). New printing technologies came & advances helped publishers make stories vivid and able to attract advertisers. American publishing/journalism experiencing dramatic change
Land grant colleges/private universities
(476) Fed govt donated public land to states for establishing colleges. Created 69 "land grant" institutions. Business and finical titans gave millions to universities... Philanthropists founded new ones or reorganized older ones to perpetuate family name *Specifically mandated to advance knowledge in "agriculture and mechanics." Retained tradition and produced great discoveries, helping US industry/commerce advance.
American Protective Association
(458) Founded by Henry Bowers (1887)... group committed to stopping immigration. New immigrants were provoking fear and resentment for native-born Americans in the same way as before.
(459) City parks were important innovations in mid 1800s, reflecting desire of urban leaders to provide antidote to congestion of city. 1850s, Central Park was made to look as little like the city as possible. One of the most popular and admired public spaces in the world. (Other public places came, too)
City beautiful movement
(459) Led by architect of Great White City, daniel Burnham. Strove to impose similar order and symmetry on disordered city life around country. Rare for planners to overcome obstacles of private landowners and complicated urban politics to attain dreams.
(461) 1884 first modern construction in Chicago... Shows cities growing upward as well as outward. Launched new era in urban architecture and new technology of construction emerged.
(462) Epidemics beginning in poor neighborhoods usually spread easily into other neighborhoods. Few officials knew improper sewage disposal and water contamination led to epidemic diseases (typhoid/cholera). Many cities lacked adequate systems for disposing human waste until 20th century. Sewage polluted water supplies
Public Health Service
(463) Fed govt created in 1912. Charged with preventing occupational diseases as TB, anemia, CO2 poisoning. Created common health standards, but had few powers to enforce, so had limited impact.
(463) 1879 charitable society which concentrated more on religious revivalism than relief to homeless and hungry. Urban expansion had widespread poverty... (some relief)
Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie
(464) 1900 Novel exposing problem of urban life: plight of single women (Carrie) who had no support. Although city had strong allure and excitement, it was also a place of alienating impersonality and some degration/exploitation.
William M. Tweed/Tammany Hall
(465) Corrupt city boss of NYC's Tammany Hall in 1860s and 1870s. went to jail in 1872.
(466) Usually offered wider array of goods at lower prices than small, local competing stores. This change in marketing altered how American bought goods.
(466) FW. Woolworth built a chain of dry goods stores. In larger cities, great department stores transformed shopping into an alluring and glamorous activity.
National Consumers League
(466) Formed in 1890s under Florence Kelley. Attempted to mobilize power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturers to improve wages/working conditions. Encouraged women to buy only products with their "white label," indicating product was made under fair working conditions.
(467,8) Free time increased as people became more compartmentalized (and consumption rose). New economies could create enough wealth to satisfy not only needs but wants for everyone. Some activities were separate between class, race, and gender.
(468) One of the most important way for entertainment. Baseball became popular in 1830s and interest grew by the end of Civil War. By World Series (1903), baseball was an important business and great national preoccupation (appealed to working class males). Football, basketball, boxing, golf, tennis bicycling, croquet...
Florenz Ziegfeld, Vaudeville
(469) NY economic potential of vaudeville grew so he staged more elaborate spectacles. Open to black performers... entertainers of both races performed music... tailored acts to white prejudices (ridiculed blacks by acting out stereotypes).
(471) Amusement park/resort. Striking examples of popular public entertainment. Thousands came (1904 average attendance at Luna Park was 90,000 people). Provided escape for genteel standards
(472) Cheaply bound/widely circulated novels became popular after the Civil War. Most readers were women. Not public popular entertainment. Americans amused themselves with novels/poetry.
Bell telephone system
(472,3) Controlled all American telephone service. Signals were weak at first... 1914 repeaters improved and transcontinental line was possible. Most powerful corps in US & a genuine monopoly.
Urban realism/Ashcan School
(474) One of the strongest impulses in American literature. Social issues as themes... Members produced work startling in its naturalism and stark in its portrayal of era's social realties. Ashcan artists were first Americans to appreciate expressionism/abstraction (1913 "Armory Show" NYC)
John Singer Sargent
(474) Brilliant portraitist most identified in America. Americans artists were turning away from traditional academic style
(474) Contributed to deep schism between new, cosmopolitan culture of the city and traditional, provincial culture of rural areas. Not only rise of liberal Protestantism with new scientific discovers but also beginning of organized Protestan fundamentalism. Spawned other new intellectual currents.
William James, Pragmatism
(475) Harvard psychologist... most prominent publicist of new theory. More sophisticated philosophy stating modern society should rely on not inherited ideals/moral principles, but on test of scientific inquiry. No idea/institution was valid unless it worked or stood test of experience
(477) Widespread acceptance in end of 19th century was important. Exposure to germs did not by itself cause disease.... General health, previous medical history, diet, nutrition, and genetic predisposition were factors. Encouraged doctors to sterilize instruments, use surgical gloves, and purify medical environments of patients. American doctors were best of the world.... Reduced infection/mortality
Pendleton Act/Civil Service
(485) 1883 Congress passed first national civil service measure. Required some fed jobs to be filled by examinations rather than patronage. Few offices fell but reach gradually extended
Rum, romanism, and rebellion
(485) Protestant minister, Sam Burchard, referred to the Democrats as this. Republican nominee James Blaine was slow to repudiate, so Democrats said Blaine tolerated slander on Catholic Church. Democrat Cleveland won with heavy Catholic vote
Sherman Antitrust Act
(487) 1890 Congress passed without dissent. Indifferently enforced and weakened by courts... had no impact... Republicans more interested in tariff
Interstate Commerce Act
(488) 1887 Banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls, required railroad to public rate schedules and file with govt, and declared all interstate rail rates be "reasonable and just." ICC administered but relied on courts to enforce. Haphazardly enforced and narrowly interpreted by courts... litte practical effect
(489) 1892 1,300 delegates... Official name was People's Party and movement was Populism. 1892 election got 1 million votes. Appealed to farmers but couldn't go beyond (no interracial character either). Rejected laissez-faire... challenged industrial capitalism Dissolved in 1896
Silver question/"bimetallism"/"free silver"
(494,5) Cleveland thought instability of currency caused depression... "Bimetallism"-system for gold and silver as basis for dollar. (s)16:(g)1 ratio. EDIT!!
William Jennings Bryan, "Cross of Gold" speech
(495) Nebraska congressman addressed Democratic Convention of 1896, which voted to adopt pro-silver platform. 1st pres candidate to stump country systematically. Lost
Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History
(499) Apostle of imperialism... thesis in 1890... countries with sea power were great nations of history. US started shipbuilding program and became 5th in world naval power 1898 and 3rd in 1900.
Yellow press/William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer
(504) Pulitzer in "New York World" while Hearst in "New York Journal" 1890s both engaged in ruthless circulation war. Very successful in gaining interest
(510) Established 1898 by upperclass to fight against annexation of Philippines.
(511) 1901 Congress responded to Cuba's constitution with no reference to US. Pressured Cuba into incorporating terms into its constitution and barred Cuba from making treaties with other nation (US could intervene and required Cuba to permit American naval stations). Left Cuba with only nominal political independence.
The Philippine War, Emilio Aguinaldo
(512,3) Lasted from 1898-1902... longest and most vicious. Soured most of American public and annexation of colonies in 1898 began and ended American territorial imperialism.
John Hay, Open Door Policy
(514) Secretary of State John Hay asked each nation with "sphere of influence" in China to allow other nations to trade freely and equally in its sphere (allowed US to trade freely with China without fear of interference). Ended with Boxer Rebellion
James A. Garfield
(484,5) Republican nominee & won in 1880 (benefitted from end of 1879 recession). Defied Stalwarts and supported civil service reform. 1881: Shot twice and died 3 months later.
Chester A. Arthur
(485) Garfield's successor... devoted, skilled and open spoilsman. Followed independent course and promoted reform. Kept Garfield's appointees to dismay of Stalwarts
(485) Reform gov of NY and Republican nominee. Elected in 1884... respected for stern and righteous opposition to politicians, grafters, pressure roups, and Tammany Hall. Embodied era where few Americans believed fed govt could/should do very. Doubted protective tariffs. Won 1892 election (similar to first term)
(486,7) Republican nominee (due to supporting tariff protection) and won in 1888 but lost pop vote. 1st since Civil War to involve clear question of economic difference... one of the most corrupt elections.
(487) Law in 1890... misinterpretted by Republicans. Saw high tariff to enrich producers and starve consumers. Democrats had majority in both houses of Congress after
(488) 1867 National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry. Granger Laws in early 1870 (strict regulation on railroad rates/practices). New regulations by courts and political inexperience of Grange leaders led to decline in late 1870s
Panic of 1893/Coxey's Army
(493,4) Began March 1893 when Philly and Reading Railroad declared bankruptcy. Corporate failures triggered stock market collapse. Reflected America's interconnected economy... showed how dependent economy was on railroads. Improved slightly in 1895 but didn't fully until 1901.
(495) Republican nominee because they wanted tariff as key issue and opposed free coinage of silver. Won 1896 election... Committed to raise tariff rates.
Gold Standard Act
(498) Enacted by Republicans in 1900 (after silver agreement with Great Brit and France failed), confirming nationa's commitment to gold standard. Victory of conservatism.
(500,1) Islands of Hawaii were important way station for American ships in China trade. Arrival of merchants, missionaries, and planters ruined traditional Hawaiian society. 1898 Congress approved treaty of annexation
(501,2) American navy interested in the Samoan harbor. Hayes made treaty in 1878. Great Britain and Germany were interested... 1899 US and Germany divvied islands while Brit got territories elsewhere... US retained harbor
(503) 1895 Cubans devastated island to force Spaniards to leave. US thought Spaniards were to blame, but brutality was on both sides.
(504) American battleship blew in Havana harbor (killed 260+ people). Americans assumed Spanish sunk it (reality: it was an accident) War hysteria swept country and Congress had military preparations. 1898 McKinley declared war (didn't want to at first)
A splendid little war
(505,6) What John Hay called Spanish-American conflict. Racial tensions continued in Cuba ??
Commodore George Dewey, Battle of Manila Bay
(506) Teddy Roosevelt instructed him to attack Spanish naval forces in Philippines (colony of Span) in event of war. 1898 sailed for Manila and completely destroyed Spanish fleet... Spanish surrendered & he became first hero of the war.
Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Riders
(508) Cavalry unit at the center of fighting during battles.Teddy Roosevelt became a hero of conflict because he led a bold/reckless charge up Kettle Hill directly into Spanish guns. He emerged unscathed but hundreds died.
Puerto Rico, Jones Act
(509) 1917 Congress passed, declaring Puerto Rico a US territory and made all Puerto Ricans American citizens. Sugar industry flourished because of American market without tariffs (but relied on international sugar prices).
(515) Secret Chinese martial-arts society launched bloody revolt against foreigners in China. EDIT?
(515) McKinley appointed as secretary of war to supervise major overhaul of armed forces. New reforms had US enter 20th century resembling modern military system
Jane Addams/ Hull House/settlement houses
(521) Progressive thought: belief of the influence of environment on individual development. Social worker... /Opened 1889 in Chicago as result... modeled for 400 institutions in nation. Sought to help immigrant families adapt to language and customs of new country.
(527) Adapted in 1880s and 1890s. Ballots printed by govt and distributed at polls to be filled out and deposited in secret helped chip away power of parties over voters.
Robert M. La Follette
(531) Most celebrated state-level reformer (Wisconsin). "Laboratory of progressivism." Won approval of direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums. Regulated RR/utilities. Passed laws regulating workplace and compensation for job injuries. Instituted graduated taxes on inherited fortunes. Doubled state levies on RRs and other corporate interests
(534) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Led the drive for equal rights.
Bill Haywood/Industrial Workers of the World
(537) Radical labor union. "Wobblies" under "Big Bill"... advocated a single union for all workers and one of few labor organizations to champion cause of unskilled workers.
(540) Upton Sinclair's novel in 1906 revealing appalling descriptions of conditions in meatpacking industry. Roosevelt passed Meat Inspection Act (helped eliminate diseases in impure meat) Other reforms followed....
Income Tax/Sixteenth Amendment
(548) Congress approved to make up for the loss of revenue under the new Underwood-Simmons Tariff. Imposed 1% tax on individuals and corporations earning more than $4000, with rates up to 6% on incomes over $500,000.
(521) Journalist who produced study of Standard Oil trust. (Showed new spirit of national reform... directed public attention toward social, economic, and political injustices)
Lincoln Steffens, McClure's magazine
(521) Most influential muckraker... portraits of "machine government" and "boss rule" in cities. Helped arouse sentiment for urban political reform. Inspired other Americans to take action.
(521) Effort to make faith into a tool of social reform. Chiefly concerned with redeeming nation's cities.
(521) Example of fusion of religion with reform. Christian social welfare organization with vaguely military structure, offering both material aid and spiritual service to urban poor.
In His Steps
(521) Written by Charles Sheldon... story of young minister who abandoned comfortable post to work among the needy. Engagement of religion with reform helped bring progressivism a powerful moral commitment to redeem lives of least favored citizens
(522) Social scientist who proposed new economic system which power would reside in hands of highly trained engineers (they could understand "machine process") Shows how some spoke of creation of a new civilization.
(523) New middle class building organizations and establishing standards to secure position in society. Created modern, organized profession. Frail in American in 1880s but as demand for professional services increased, so did pressures for reform.
American Medical Association
(523) 1901 doctors reorganized into a national professional society. By 1920, 2/3 of doctors were members. Called for strict, scientific standards for admission to practice of medicine. State govt passed new laws requiring licenses. (1900 compared favorably with Europe)
U.S. Chamber of Commerce
(523) 1912 businessmen supported creation of schools and set up their own national organizations. Showed dramatic expansion in Americans engaged in administrative/professional tasks.
(524) Some educated women shunned marriage entirely ( among most prominent female reformers) Some lived alone, and others lived with other women in long-term relationships with some secretly romantic. Divorce rate increased (1916 usually women initiated divorce)
General Federation of Women's Clubs
(525) 1892 women formed to coordinate activities of local organizations. 1917 = 1 million members. Began as cultural organizations to provide middle and upper class women with outlet for intellectual energies. By 1900s more concerned with social reform Allowed women to define a space for themselves in public world without openly challenging male-dominated order
Women's Trade Union League
(525) WTUL Women's group founded in 1903 by female union members and upper-class reformers. Public meetings on behalf of female workers, raised money to support strikes, marched picket lines, and bailed striking women out of jail.
National Association of Colored Women
(525) Most clubs excluded blacks, so they formed their own. Took positions on issues like lynching and segregation.
Carrie Chapman Catt/National American Woman Association
(526) Journalist who helped lead NAWSA... grew to over 2 million in 1917. Justified suffrage in less threatening ways. Claimed that b/c women occupied a distinct sphere, women suffrage would make an important contribution to politics.
(526) 1920 suffragists won ratification, guaranteeing voting rights to women throughout the nation. Not completely satisfying to some though
Alice Paul/National Woman's Party
(527) Head of militant National Woman's Party (1916) didn't accept "separate sphere" justification. Women needed an amendment providing clear legal protection, but there was limited favor.
(528) Another approach to municipal reform. Elected officials hired outside expert to take charge of govt. Remained untainted by corrupting influence of politics.
(530) Allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation directly to voters in genreal elections. 1918 20+ states enacted one or both reforms
(530) Provided method by which actions of legislature could return to electorate for approval. 1918 20+ states enacted one or both reforms
(530) Another effort to limit power of party and improve quality of elected officials. Attempted to remove selection of candidates from bosses and give it to people (South wanted to limit black voting). 1915 every state instituted for some offices
(530) Gave voters right to remove public official from office at special election. More opposition, but few states adopted.
(531,2) Some unions played important roles in reform battles. Union pressures contributed to passage of similar laws in other states.
W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk
(533) Chief spokesman and Harvard-trained sociologist and historian. In beg. of 20th century emerged a powerful challenge to Booker T Washington and entire structure of race relations. Talented blacks should accept nothing less than full university education (aspire professions). Launched Niagara Movement and more drive for equal rights.
Ida Wells Barnett
(534) Most effective crusader against lynching. Most determined opponents were usually southern women.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
(535) Temperance advocates formed. 1874 temperance movement developed new strength. Became single largest women's organization in American history to that point. Demand grew to included complete prohibition of sale/manufacture of alcohol
(535) Led (after 1879) WCTU. Ratification of prohibition of alcohol (18th amendment) became law in 1919 and took effect in Jan. 1920
(535) Science of altering reproductive processes of plants and animals to produce new hybrids/breeds. Applied science to humans... claimed human inequalities were hereditary and immigration contributed to multiplication of the unfit. Nativists embraced while employers tried to block immigration restriction movement for a time... but nativists eventually gain strength.
Eugene V. Debs/Socialist Party of America
(536) Had radical critiques of capitalist system and attracted lots of support in 1900-1914. Germans, Jews, and Protestant farms in South and Midwest. Agreed on the need of structural changes in economy but held different tactics.
Louis D. Brandeis
(538) Viewpoint that fed govt should work to break up largest combinations to enforce balance between need for bigness and need for competition. Lawyer and later justice of Supreme Court. "curse of bigness"
Northern Securities Co. case
(540) Roosevelt ordered Justice Department to invoke S-Antitrust Act against this RR monopoly ($400 million enterprise by JP Morgan and others). 40 other antitrust suits followed in presidency (He wasn't serious about reversing economic concentration though.)
(540) Roosevelt said to work in anthracite coal strike to provide this.
Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
(540) Roosevelt pressured Congress to enact. Restricted sale of dangerous or ineffective medicines.
(541) Roosevelt's chief forester... R and him seized forests and water power sites still in public domain before bill (1907 to restrict authority over public lands) was law.
(542) Nation's leading preservationist and founder of Sierra Club. Battle raged between naturalists and dam advocates
(542) Financier who constructed pool of assets of NY banks to prop up shaky financial institutions. US Steel purchased shares of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company (no antitrust)... 1907 panic resided.
(546-9) Battle of Roosevelt and Taft for Republican nomination and Taft won. So Roosevelt took supporters out of party to start a new one."Fit as a bull moose"
(547) 1912 Wilson presented this progressive program in presidential campaign
Federal Reserve Act
(548) Dec. 23, 1913 Congress' major reform of American banking system. 12 regional banks would hold certain % of member bank's assets, use Federal Reserve notes, and shift funds quickly to troubled areas.
Clayton Antitrust Act
(549) One of Wilson's proposed measures to deal with monopoly problem. 1914. Proposed stronger measure to break up trusts (Wilson lost interest and did little to protect it from conservative assaults)
(560) British passenger liner sank by German submarine without warning, causing 1,198 deaths (128 Americans). Most Americans considered the attack an unprovoked act on civilians. Germans agreed (cause of Wilson's demands) not to repeat... But 1916 said it would and did... so Wilson demanded and they agreed again.
() 31st President of the United States. EDIT!!
(563) Fall of 1917... the overthrow of the Russian government. The Bolsheviks were an extremist faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (later renamed the Russian Communist Party) who seized control of the government and ushered in the Soviet age.
Treaty of Versailles
(571,2) Wilson presented to Senate July 10, 1919, but some had many objections. They believed that America should remain free of biding foreign entanglements, but other were concerned with constructing a winning issue for Republicans.
(574) Nation's racial demographics transformed. Large black communities arose in northern cities.
(576) Two Italian immigrants charged with murder of paymaster in MA. Case against was weak, but both men were confessed anarchists... Convicted and sentenced to death. Aug. 23, 1927 widespread protest in US and around the world... still died in electric chair.
Great White Fleet
(554) Japan and American relations deteriorated, so for Japan to recognize power, Roosevelt sent 16 (painted white) battleships of new American navy on unprecedented journey around the world, including call on Japan.
(554,5) 1904 announced to Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt claimed that US had the right to oppose European intervention in Western Hemisphere but also intervene in domestic affairs of neighbors (if they proved unable to maintain order/national sovereignty). First use was crisis in Dominican Republic.
(555,6) Linked Atlantic and Pacific by creating a channel through Central America. Most celebrated foreign policy accomplishment of Roosevelt's presidency. John Hay (Sec of St) negotiated with Columbian diplomats for construction.... Roosevelt sent USS Nashville... then recognized Panama as independent nation... so new Panamanian govt agreed to treaty.
(557) (Taft's sec. of state) Philander C. Knox's policies. He worked aggressively to extend American investments into less-developed regions.
(558,9) Carranza's lieutenant... Wilson abandoned him, which he considered as American betrayal. Retaliated in Jan. 1916 by shooting 16 American engineers in Mexico and 17 more in New Mexico. Never found him
Gen. John J. Pershing
(559) Wilson ordered Gen. John J. Perishing to lead an American expeditionary force across Mexican border to find Pancho Villa (with permission from Carranza govt). Never found him, but fought along the way. Wilson turned attention elsewhere
Triple Entente/Triple Alliance
(559) Known as "Allies," and linked Britain, France, and Russia. Later called "Central Powers," united Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Italy (Italy joined Allies when war began). Chief rivalry between Great Britain and Germany.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
(559) 1914 Heir to throne of tottering empire was assassinated by Serbian nationalist while paying state visit. Germany supported Austria-Hungary's decision to launch assault on Serbia. Serbians called Russia.... August 3, Germany declared war on Russia and France and invaded Belgium. August 4, GB declared war on Germany (cause of alliance w/ France). By 1915, European continent (part of Asia) embroiled in major war.
(56) EDIT EDIT EDIT
(562) British gave Wilson intercepted telegram sent by German foreign minister (Arthur Z) to govt of Mexico. Proposed that in war between US and Germany, Mexicans should join Germany. 1917 Russia revolution replaced its regime with new, republican govt. So US was spared allying with monarchy.
(563) Nov. 1917 new communist govt negotiated hasty and costly peace between Russia and Central Powers, freeing German troops to fight on western front.
Selective Service Act
(563) Only national draft could provide needed men in 1917. Wilson won passage in mid-May. Brought nearly 3 million men into army.
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
(563) Under General John Pershing. Joined Allied forces in turning back a series of new German assaults. Assisted French in repelling German offense. Helped pushGermans back toward their own border and cut the enemy's major supply lines.... Great War shuddered to a close
(564) No longer feasible to send troops into open field. Trenches sheltered troops while allowing limited (inconclusive) fighting. More mobile and chemical weapons allowed attacks on entrenched soldiers without direct combat.
(566) Govt launched major drive to solicit loans from American people by selling this to public. Produced $23 billion... new taxes, too. Effort to raise money.
War Industries Board/Bernard Baruch
(567) Created 1917 to coordinate govt purchases of military supplies. Bad when Wilson restructured and placed it under control of Bernard Baruch.
Committee on Public Information/George Creel
(568,9) Vast propaganda campaign, under George Creel. Supervised 75 million pieces of print and controlled information available for newspapers and magazines. 1918 posters and films depicted exaggerated portrayals of savagery of Germans. Govt began to suppress dissent.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
(569) E: 1917 gave govt new tools to combat spying, sabotage, or obstruction of war effort. SS: 1918 expanded meaning of E to make any public expression of opposition to war illegal. Allowed officials to prosecute anyone who criticized president or govt.
Eugene V. Debs
(570) Humane leader of Socialist Party and opponent of the war. Sentenced to 10 yrs of prison in 1918 (pardoned in 1921). Many Americans favored repression of socialists and radicals, and now policies made it legal to arrest them.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
(569) Big Bill Haywood (fled to Soviet Union) and members were energetically prosecuted. More than 1,500 people arrested in 1918 for criticizing govt.
(570) Wilson grouped war aims under 14 headings (3 broad categories). 8 recommendations for adjusting postwar boundaries and establishing new nations to replace defunct Austro-Hungarian/Ottoman empires. 5 general principles governing international conduct in future (free seas, open covenants, free trade, reductions in armaments, and impartial mediation of colonial claims). 2 proposal for the League, implementing new principles and territorial adjustments for future controversies.
League of Nations
(570,1,2) Wilson hoped that once the League was established, it could rectify the treaty's many shortcomings. Wanted to ensure that war never broke out again
Henry Cabot Lodge
(572) MA. Powerful chairman of FRC who loathed president and tried to obstruct treaty. Gradually, his opposition crystallized into series of "reservations" (amendments to League further limiting American obligations to organization). Pres did not yield.
Strikes of 1919
(573) 1919 inflation wiped out modest wage gains workers achieved during war. EDIT
(575) Black Jamaican attracted wide US following with ideology of black nationalism. Encouraged blacks to reject assimilation into white society and to develop pride in their own race and culture. UNIA launched chain of black-owned grocery stores and pressed creation of other black businesses. Although he was deported to Jamaica, the allure of black nationalism survived in black culture long after.
(576) Concerns about communist threat grew in 1919... Spontaneous acts of violence against supposed radicals occurred. 30 states enacted peacetime sedition laws and imposed penalties on promoters of revolution.
A. Mitchell Palmer
(576) 1920 New Year's Mitchell Palmer and J. Hoover led raids on alleged radical centres throughout country, arresting more than 6,000 people.
(577) Repub pres nominee, Warren Harding, embraced no soaring ideal but a vague promise of a return. Huge win (61%) pop vote and every state outside of South. New age beginning
(591) Pioneer of American birth-control movement... Believed large families among major causes of poverty and distress in poor communities. 1920s became more effective in persuading middle-class women to see benefits in birth control... still remained illegal some places.
open shop/American Plan
(583) A shop in which no worker could be required to join a union. Crusade became a pretext for harsh campaign of union-busted. Union membership fell from more than 5 million 1920 to < 3 million in 1929.
(592) NYC new generation of African American intellectuals created flourishing artistic life. Harlem poets, novelist, and artists drew heavily from African roots in an effort to prove richness of racial heritage.
William Jennings Bryan
(595) Important fundamentalists spokesman who traveled to Dayton to assist prosecution of John T Scopes. Darrow scored important victory for modernists because Bryan stood as "expert on the Bible." Trial put fundamentalists on defensive and discouraged them from politics, but it resolved conflict between fundamentalists and modernists.
(581) "Shortwave" radios that allowed individual owners to establish contact with each other. Families bought more conventional radio sets. Radio contributed to economic growth (1920s almost every family had one)
(581) Synthetic fibers along with other industries fueled by technological advances (electronics, home appliances, plastics, metal, oil, electric power) grew dramatically.
Welfare capitalism/Henry Ford
(583) Paternalistic techniques that some employers adopted. Ford shortened workweek, raised wages, and instituted paid vacations. Gave workers no real control over their own fates; company unions were feeble... survived only as long as the industry prospered. (collapsed in 1929)
pink collar jobs
(583) Growing proportion of women workforce who were given low-paying service occupations (secretaries, salesclerks, telephone operators)
A. Philip Randolph
(584) Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters... one of the few important unions dominated and led by African Americans. (Most blacks worked in jobs in which AFL took no interest in (janitors, dishwashers))
(584) Japanese immigrants and their American-born children enjoyed economic success. Showed Japanese managed to escape ranks of unskilled by forming their own small businesses
(584) Mexican immigrants formed major part of unskilled workforce... some found work in factories... some faced hostility and discrimination from Anglo population
The Man Nobody Knows
(587) One of the successful books in 1920s by advertising executive Bruce Barton. Jesus not only religious prophet but a "super salesman" (in tune with new spirit of consumer culture)... he lived a full and rewarding life in this world and current people should do the same.
(589) Differed sharply on many points, but Freud and Jung helped legitimize idea of exploring the unconscious way of discovering roots of mental problems. Often misunderstood but became a national preoccupation.
(590) To modify behavior by discouraging undesirable behavior and reinforce "acceptable" actions. Demonstrated significant success in treating disorders like alcoholism, drug addiction, and phobias.
(591) Modern woman whose liberated lifestyle found expression in dress, hairstyle, speech, and behavior. Had a particular impact on lower-middle-class and working-class single women, who filled new jobs in industry and the service sector. Some women concluded New Era it was no longer necessary maintain "respectability."
(591) NWP attempted to fight powerlessness through its campaign for Equal Rights Amendment (little support in Congress) Female dominated consumer groups grew rapidly and increased the range and energy of efforts
Equal Rights Amendment
(591) Found little support in congress. Responding to surffrage victory, women organized League of Women Voters and women's auxiliaries of both Democratic and Republican parties.
(592) Baltimore journalist who ridiculed religion, politics, arts, and even democracy itself. Many artists/intellectuals reflected in a series of savage critiques of modern society by "debunkers"
(592) Published savage novels in which he lashed out at one aspect of modern bourgeois society one after another. 1920s Intellectuals claimed to reject "success ethic"
F. Scott Fitzgerald
(592) Novelists who attacked the American obsession with material success.
(592) Poet "I am a Negro—and beautiful." Other Harlem black writers/musicians/artists helped establish a thriving, and at times highly politicized, culture rooted in the historical legacy of race
(590) Effective Jan. 1920, but within a year "noble experiment" not working well. Produced conspicuous and growing violations.
wets and "drys"
(593) "Wets": opponents of prohibition gained steadily in influence. Couldn't win repeal of amendment until 1933
National Origins Act of 1924
(593) Banned immigration from East Asia entirely and reduced quota (based on 1890 census, meaning immigration favored northwestern Europeans) for Europeans from 3 to 2%.
The New Klan
(593,4) First was largely concerned with intimidating blacks, but after WWI blacks were secondary to Catholics, Jews, and foreigners. (1924 4 million including women)
Leo Frank case
(593) Nativists passions swelled when Jewish factory manager in Atlanta 1914 convicted of murdering female employee. Mob stormed and lynched him.
(594) American Civil Liberties Union founded in 1917 to defend pacifist, radicals, and conscientious objectors during WWI. Offered free counsel to Tennessee educator willing to defy law and become the defendant in a test case.
(594,5) 24yr old bio teacher in Dayton agreed to have himself arrested. Clearly and deliberately violated the law... Scopes fined $100 and case was dismissed in higher court due to technicality.
(594,5) Famous attorney defend Scopes. Made Bryan's stubborn defense of biblical truths appear foolish and finally maneuvered Bryan into admitting the possibility that not all religious dogma was subject to only one interpretation. Did not resolve conflict between fundamentalists and modernists.
Alfred E. Smith
(596) Irish Catholic governor of NY. "No oil on Al" Not able to unite divided Democratic party in 1928 when nominated for president because of widespread anti-Catholic sentiment (South).
Warren G. Harding
(596) Elected (Republican) president in 1920... nomination as a result of agreement among leaders in his party who considered him "good second-rater." Appointed distinguished men to some important cabinet offices and attempted to stabilize troubled foreign policy. Baffled by responsibilities... had penchant for gambling, illegal alcohol, and attractive women. READ BOOK FOR MORE INFO
(597) Scandal involved oil reserves. Harding transferred control from Navy Department to Interior Department, and Fall leased them to two wealthy businessmen and received half million in "loans" to ease financial troubles. Fall sentenced to yr in prison.
(597) President after Harding. Dour, silent, and even puritanical. Like Harding, he took a passive approach. Less active... did not run for reelection.
(598) Wealthy steel and aluminum tycoon. Secretary of Treasury who worked to achieve substantial reductions in taxes on corporate profits, personal incomes, and inheritances (Congress cut by more than half). Worked closely with Coolidge after 1924 to trim modest federal budget (managed to retire half of nation's WWI debt)
monetary interpretation/Keynesian interpretation
(607) John Maynard Keynes in 1930s said deficit spending by govt was acceptable and even desirable as a means of increasing overall demand and stimulating economic activity. (like using fed reserve bank and spending/taxation policies to influence economic activity) (Democratic... republicans focused on cutting spending)
(608) Large area of agricultural settlement in Great Plains suffered from natural disaster: one of the worst droughts in history of nation. Stretched north Texas into Dakotas... experienced steady decline in rainfall and increase in heat. Continued for a decade, turning fertile farm regions into virtual deserts. Farmers left homes in search of work.
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
(618) Group of 3,000 young AMericans who travled to Spani to join fight against fascists. American Communist Party instrumental in creating and directing the activities.
(621) Name of shantytowns unemployed people established on city outskirts called by many Americans who blamed president personally for crisis.
(603) October 29, 1929 after a week of steadily rising instability, all efforts to save the market failed. Pop folklore established stock market crash as beginning/cause of Great Depression. But although this was an early sign, Depression had earlier beginnings and more important causes
(609) Example of racism that attracted attention of the nation. March 1931, nine black teens taken off train in Alabama & arrested for vagrancy and disorder. Two white women accused them of rape. Overwhelming evidence that they weren't actually raped, but all-white jury convicted and sentenced 8 to death. Supreme Court overturned, Int Labor Defense aided and publicized. Accused eventually gained freedom (last boy released in 1950).
(611) Mexican Americans who filled same menial jobs in CA and Southwest that blacks traditionally filled in other regions. US hispanic pop rose since 1900s. Depression caused high Mexican unemployment (half million left US in first yrs of Depression)
(614) 1936 Wrote "How to Win Friends and Influence People," a self-help manual preaching individual initiative... best selling books of the decade. Cultural products of 1930s attracted widest popular audiences were those that diverted attention away from Depression.
Amos 'n Andy
(614) Comedy radio show with humorous (demeaning) picture of urban blacks. Radio and the movies became two most powerful instruments of pop culture in 1930s. Staple of broadcasting was escapism. Radio brought new kind of comdey to a wide audience.
(614) Enormously popular esp among women who were alone in the house during the day. Named b/c usually sponsored by soap companies (they targeted women).
Orson Welles, War of the Worlds
(615) Memorable event on Halloween night 1938. Broadcast of a radio play about aliens going to NY armed with terrible weapons. Took form of news broadcast, creating panic among millions of people who believed for a while that events were real. Lol
(615) 1930s Italian-born director who brought the most effective (muted) presentation of social message. Deep, romanticized love for his adopted country, and translated it to vaguely populistic admiration for ordinary people. Helped audiences find solace in vision of imagined American past (in warmth and goodness of idealized small towns and decency of ordinary people)
(616) 1930s were first yrs of Disney's long reign as champion of animation and children's entertainment.
Gone with the Wind
(616,7) 1936 Not all literature was challenging or controversial... most popular were escapist and romantic as radio shows/movies. Enormously popular film of 1930s were adaptations to popular novels. Released 1939...
(617) First published 1936, very popular photographic journal. Devoted some attention to politics and to economic conditions of Depression, but best known for stunning photos or sporting and theater events, natural landscapes, and impressive public projects. Leading magazines focused on fashions, stunts, scenery, and arts than on social conditions of nation.
John dos Passo
(617) USA trilogy that was one of the most significant literature which offered corrosive portraits of harshness and emptiness of American life. Attacked materialistic madness of American culture. Other Depression writing was frankly and openly challenging to dominant values of American pop culture.
The Popular Front
(617) Broad coalition of "antifascist" groups on the left... most important was American Communist Party. Later 1930s much of political literature adopted more optimistic, although often no less radical, approach to society. Enhanced reputation and influence of Communist Party & mobilized writers, artists, and intellectuals behind critical, democratic sensibility.
American Communist Party
(617,8) Long been harsh and unrelenting critic of American capitalism and its supposed control of govt. But 1935 under Soviet Union, the part softened attitude toward Franklin Roosevelt (Stalin saw as potential ally against Hitler) and formed loose alliances with many other "progressive" groups. Praised New Deal and John L Lewis... "communism is 20th century Americanism"
John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
(619) Most successful chronicler of social conditions in 1930s, published 1939. Offered harsh portrait of exploitive feature of West agrarian life, as well as a tribute to endurance of main characters and spirit and community they represent.
(620) Began pres 1929 believing nation faced bright and prosperous future. Attempted to expand associational policies... Most of term he relied on principles that alway governed his pub life. REsponded to Depression by attempting to restore public confidence in economy. 1931 structure he had collapsed. READ TEXT
(620) Hoover implored businessmen not to cut production or lay off workers...talked labor leaders into forgoing demands for higher wages/better hours. 1931 economic conditions deteriorated so much that structure collapsed.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(621) Established by bill passed in Jan 1932... A govt agency to provide fed loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses. Unlike earlier Hoover programs, this operated on large scale. Failed to deal directly or forcefully enough with real economy problems to produce any significant recovery. Not enough money to make real impact & didn't spend all it had.
Farmers' Holiday Association
(621) Summer 1932 unhappy farm owners in Iowa established new organization which endorsed withholding of farm products from market (farmers' strike). In the end dissolved in failure.
(621) Veterans demanded that bonus be paid immediately and Hoover rejected appeal (worried about balancing budget). June 1932 20,000+ veterans (members of Bonus Expeditionary Force) marched into Washington, built crude camps around city, and promised to stay until Congress approved legislation to pay bonus. Hoover ordered US Army to assist police in clearing them out. Final blow to Hoover's already battered political standing;
Asians migrate to North America
Hispaniola wiped 1/2 Native American population. Mayan area of Mexico. 95% died in the first few years of contact.
Columbus lands in what becomes known as America, thus from a European view "discovering" it
John Cabot, 1490s
Genoan, supported by England), explored North America 100 years before England attempted to colonize and 5 years after Spain arrived (Florida).
African slaves arrive in Spanish America. They will not arrive in Jamestown until 1619.
Hernando Cortez, 1518-1530
Smallpox ravages Indians, failed at first attempt against Aztecs, but after infecting them with smallpox--epidemic decimated the natives; most brutal Spanish Conquistador. Conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan. Established Mexico City, transported a lot of precious metal back to Spain, and the new colony gave rise to mestizos (mixed races of European and Native American descent)
circumnavigated globe; named the Pacific
Elizabeth I, 1558
became English Queen
St. Augustine, Florida Spanish founded first permanent settlement, about 42 years before the English in Jamestown