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Flashcards in Unfinishednation2 Deck (331):
1

Roanoke, 1587

Lost Colony established by John White. White left to get supplies and took three years to return; previously (1585)Sir Richard Grenville led a group of men to the island. Sir Francis Drake came with supplies but the colonists boarded the boat and left.

2

Don Juan Onate, 1598

traveled North to New Mexico, claimed the land of the Pueblo Indians. Followed Coronado's old path into present day New Mexico, and spread Roman Catholicism by establishing missions. He conquered the Indians ruthlessly, maiming them by cutting off one foot of survivors just so they'd remember.

3

James I, 1603

became English King and in 1606 gave charters to colonize in the south and Plymouth merchants in the north.

4

Jamestown, 1607

first permanent English settlement after 30 years of trying to colonize.

5

Quebic, 1608

French established

6

Santa Fe, 1609

Spanish colonists founded

7

Pope, 1680

2,000 Spanish living among 30,000 Pueblos; tried to convert to Catholicism but they continued with their rituals. Led an uprising killing hundreds and capturing back Sante Fe.

8

Final Results of Pope, 1696

Twelve years later Spanish return to Pueblo area and crushed them. Assimilated--Spanish population, increased, Indian population, decreased by half due to war, disease and migration.

9

1500-1800

Half of all immigrants to the New World were African slaves.

10

1619

Jamestwon founding of both House of Burgesses (early western democracy) and John Rolfe's purchase of some "twenty odd Africans"

11

Mayflower Compact

1620, created a "civil body politic"

12

Land Bridge theory

Linked Asia and North America across Bering Sea. Nomadic tribes walked across the "bridge" before the sea level rose and thus populated the Americas.

13

Maize

This crop was important because people could settle down and be farmers, which gave rise to towns and then cities.

14

Columbian Exchange

Exchange of goods and ideas between the Old and New World. From the New World: corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, syphilis. From the Old World: cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, and devastating diseases - smallpox, yellow fever

15

Treaty of Tordesillas

Portugal and Spain feuded over who got what land; the Pope drew a line that ran North-South in Brazil; Portugal got everything east of the line (Brazil and land around/under Africa) and Spain got everything west of the line

16

Francisco Pizarro

Conquered the Incan Empire of Peru and begins shipping tons of gold/silver back to Spain. This huge influx of precious metals made European prices skyrocket (inflation).

17

Francisco Coronado

Ventured into current Southwest U.S. looking for Cibola, the legendary city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians.

18

Encomienda System

Indians were "commended" or given to Spanish landlords. Indians would work on the farm and be converted to Christianity. But it was basically just slavery on a plantation guised as missionary work.

19

John Cabot

Explored the Canadian coastline and named many of its islands and capes. His mission's purpose was to search for a Northwest passage across North America to Asia, which was unsuccessful

20

Black Legend

The notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery) to the New World; used by non-Catholics or non-Spanish to criticize the Spanish. However, the Spanish also brought good things such as law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, and civilization.

21

1606

James I issues new charter dividing North America b/t London Group in the south and the Plymouth merchants in the north. Charter promised full rights of Englishmen, an end to strict rule and share in self-government.

22

Jamestown

founded in 1607. London Co. headed for VA w/ 144 men aboard. Only 104 men survived. Site was low and swampy (failed for 17 years). Founded as a Joint Stock company to make a profit.

23

John Smith

John Smith took leadership promoted work and order, raids on Indian villages. Only 38 of orignial 144 survived. No women-no permanent stake. Disease-malaria. "Saved" by Pochahantas

24

Jamestown "starving time"

600 passangers to VA. One ship lost at sea, one aground on Bermuda isle. Many who arrived succumed to fevers. Local indians kept them barracaded in. Lived off dogs,..corpses. 60 people left when aground vessel arrived. All left. Ran into another supply vessel w/ Governor Lord De La Warr. Establish headright system. (50 acres) encouraged immigration.

25

Early Jamestown

Pocohontas married John Rolf and went to visit England. During VA 17 years 8,500 white settlers arrived--80% died.

26

1619

First African workers in Virginia. 20 some African negroes. Colonists thought they were indentured servants.

27

House of Burgesses

Met for the first time in 1619. Established representative gov't. (early preedent for self government)

28

Plymouth

Founded in 1620. Puritan Separatists. Set sail on the Mayflower, drew up the Mayflower Compact and governed themselves. "combine urselves together into a civil body politic" (early precedent for self-government)

29

1621

Spain went to war with the Netherlands. English swooped in and began colonizing.(Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica and Barbados). Spain only colonized on the larger islands (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico). Tobacco and cotton failed--sugar succeeded.

30

Opecenough

Powhatan Indians attack Virginia in 1622

31

1624

Dutch settle in Manhattan

32

Charles I

began ruling as Monarch in England, dismissed the Parliament.

33

1629-40

King Charles I dissolved Parliament. (this is King James' son who was also repressive toward Puritans).

34

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Puritans established in 1630. 17 ships set sail with 1,000 people. Largest single migration. Gov'n John Winthrop. Created a refuge for Puritans. Charter meant they were not responsible to any company officials in England.

35

English turmoil

Charles I began ruling, Dismissed Parliament, Parliament returned, English Civil War began; Charles beheaded; New "protector" died; Charles II comes back and seizes throne. This is called the Restoration Period (1632-33).

36

Maryland

founded in 1634. Origins different than VA. Originally a refuge for Catholics, but Calvert died while negotiating with the King Lord Baltimore for charter. His son Cecilius (second Lord Baltimore) received charter and made his brother Leonard Calvert as governor. The most religiously tolerant.

37

Rhode Island

Roger Williams founded, 1635-36. Williams had lived in Salem, expressing religious and political dissent. Advocated separation from England. He escaped before deportation. Refuged with Narragansett tribe. Created Providence. Rhode Island was the only colony which all faiths could worship.

38

Pequot War

Broke out between English settlers in Connectcut valley in 1637. Natives almost wiped out. Bloodiest battle between whites and Indians. White's called it King Philips War(Indian Chief).Whites and Mohawks ambushed Metacomet and killed him. Fragile alliance disbanded. Earlier exchange of Flintlock rifle and Matchlock rifle (heavy).

39

Anne Hutchinson

felt that one could talk directly to God. Challenged assumptions about role of women in Puritan society. Convicted of heresy and sedition, banished with her family in 1638. Later killed in Indian uprising.

40

English Civil War

broke out in 1642. King Charles I antagonized the Parliament by dismissing them twice in two years. They organized a military force --Cavaliers (support the king) and the Roundheads (forces of Parliament, largly Puritan). Roundheads won..king beheaded.

41

1650's

England began trying to regulate colonial trade by Pariliament passing laws to keep Dutch ships out of the colonies. Navigation Acts passed later (1660-1673).

42

Navigation Acts

1660, 1663, 1673. Only trade with English ships and items exported only to England (tobacco); European goods must go through England to get taxed before the colonies receive; Coastal trading amongst colonies will be subject to taxes and custom officials will be appointed.

43

New Netherlands

English captured in 1664. Charles I granted his brother James(Duke of York) the land between CT and DE rivers. English navy extracted surrender of Dutch colony, renamed it New York. Living there were Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, French and Africans(slaves) and Indians. No provision for representative assemblies.Political power with wealthy.

44

Charleston

founded in 1669. Charles II awarded 8 proprietors joint title. Religious freedom for all Christian faiths. Created representative assembly. Hoped to attract existing settlers and save $$. Anthony Ashley Cooper didn't give up and aided by John Locke drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. Divided colonies into equal size/equal parcels. Established social hierarchy. North (backwoods) South (fertile land/good harbor). Headright system established. It failed.

45

New Jersey

founded in 1674. James (Duke of York) gave part of his charter to John Berkley and Sir George Carteret. Carteret named it NJ. Enormous ethnic and religious diversity but no class division.

46

King Phillips War (Metacom's War)

1675-1678, New England natives defending themselves against an ever increasing white settlement, 12 New England towns destroyed and about 1/2 of New England towns attacked, Metacom was eventually captured and killed

47

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - The autocratic rule of Berkley,Revealed rival elites in VA; Demonstrated instability of large population of non-landowners; continued struggle for white and Indian spheres of influence. Bacon was a westerland farmer.Nathaniel Bacon angered about hold the line of settlement to avoid Indian conflicts. Motivated movement away from indenture and toward race based slavery.

48

Pennsylvania

chartered in 1681. Society of Friends, first leader George Fox & Margaret Fell. Quakers rejected predestination concept and original sin. Pacifists. Colony was best know and most cosmopolitan of all colonies. Franklin named Philadelphia (city of brotherly love).

49

1684

Defiance of Navigation Acts by MA lead to charter getting revoked.

50

Dominion of New England

1686

51

Glorious Revolution

James II popular support vanished, daughter Mary (protestant) and husband William of Orange appt. ruler of Netherlands to assume the throne. Considered a bloodless coup. Touched off revolutions in several colonies (bloody ones); representative assemblies revived; colonial unification abandoned. 1688-89

52

1691

The Glorious Revolution led to Maryland becoming a separate colony. The new gov't increase potential authority.

53

1701

Ben Franklin signed a Charter of Liberties to establish representative assembly--limited authority of proprietor.

54

Spanish "Southwest"

Spanish began to fortify borders by est. forts (San Antonio area). Greatest threat was the French near Texas. (1731)

55

Georgia

chartered in 1732. Granted General James Oglethorpe and his fellow trustees control of GA. Excluded Africans(free or slave); Settlement became more compact and easier to defend. Only a few debtors release from prison. Brought hundreds of tradesman England, Switzerland, Germany, Scotland, Jews. Grew slower that other colonies.

56

colonial restoration period

Restoration Period --resumption of colonization in America. four additional colonies: Carolinas, NY, NJ and PA (1663)

57

mail order brides in Jamestown

VA Co. sent ironworkers and craftsman with 100 Englishwoman for wives to Virginia Colony.

58

What led to the Pueblo Revolt?

The harsh treatment of the Spanish and the Missions were tolerated at beginning but as the priests continued their power push by enforcing taxes on converted natives, burning every religious sacred thing of the pueblo people, forbidding the Kachina dances that are done at ceremonies, and arresting 43 shamans, killing 4, along with the drought that was destroying livestock and crops the natives under the leadership of shaman Pope, who was released from capture, revived their traditional religious culture and now wanted the Spanish out

59

Why was there such intensified religious restriction before Pueblo revolt?

Continued power struggle between the Spanish governors and the religious friars over. Both groups were there just to exploit the pueblos and competition to who can get the most out of the labor and resources of them. In order for the friars to get control of the labor they offered they needed to convert the natives and so they believed the best way to do so was to eliminate any other religious option, including the one they were originally practicing

60

Result of Pueblo Revolt

Spanish lost the colony to the Pueblo and their monopoly over the midwest. The Spanish horses are captured and spread throughout the Southwest becoming the start of the horse culture that arises throughout the heart of america

61

What was the Pueblo Revolt?

an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.

62

What happened during the pueblo revolt? (damages done) and how many natives were involved?

Pueblo indians killed 400 spanish, burned churches, put poop on chuches, killed preist & sent surviving spanish fleeing, 17,000

63

What was different about the treatment of the Pueblos this time after the Spanish had returned?

The Spanish weren't forcing them to give up their culture anymore - they were less oppressive

64

Why was the Pueblo Revolt significant? (3 reasons)

it was the only successful revolt, Pueblo culture stayed intact, pueblos are still located there today.

65

Stono Rebellion

first major slave rebellion (South Carolina), slaves stole a supply of guns and killed 20-25 whites, slaves hoped to escape to Florida (1676) Enacted strong laws stopping slaves from assembling in groups and from being taught to read.

66

slavery in South Carolina

imported slaves with specific knowledge of rice growing. Most southerners did not own slaves but felt that slaves were inferior to all whites

67

Maryland Toleration Act, 1649

protected Roman Catholics from discrimination and gave Christians some degree of religous action

68

Headright System (Chesapeake)

Method of attracting settlers to Virginia; after 1618, it gave fifty acres of land to anyone who paid for their own passage or for that of any other settlers who might be sent or brought to the colony.

69

City on a Hill

John Winthrop's statement the Puritans were to live as a model Christian society for the world (the beginning of American Exceptionalism?)

70

New England Colonies

migrated as families, longer life expectancy, religously motivated,

71

Chesapeake Colonies

intially mostly single men, motivated by trade and profit

72

Halfway Covenant

signified decrease in religous zeal of 2nd generation Puritans, In 1662, Puritans permitted the baptized children of church members into a "half-way" membership in the congregation and allowed them to baptize their children; they still could not vote or take communion.

73

Pilgrims

sepratists who wanted to end all ties with a corrupt England and corrupt Europe (beginning of theme of US' isolationism)

74

Puritans

led by John Winthrop, wanted to reform or "purify" the Church of England, 11 ships and 700 people to Mass. Bay, lived in villages centered around a meeting house, strict moral code - no card playing no dancing

75

Pennsylvania

Founded by William Penn when King Charles II settled a debt with Penn's father using land in 1681; proprietary colony with William Penn as the proprietor, settled by Quakers

76

Relations with Great Britain - Restoration (1660) and the Glorious Revolution (1688)

American colonists reluctant to accept the Restoration as it appeared to show the failure of puritan reform. Glorious Revolution in England led to small rebellions in the colonies due to the new English Bill of Rights

77

Virginia Company

1606; English joint stock companies chartered by James I with the purpose of establishing colonies in America

78

Pequot War

1634-38; armed conflict between English colonists and Pequot Indians, resulting in hundreds of Indians killed or in captivity

79

Peaceable Kingdom

William Penn's vision of Pennsylvania inhabited by both Indians and Europeans

80

Antinomianism

An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson

81

Great Migration

Settlement of over twenty thousand Puritans in Massachusetts Bay and other parts of New England between 1630 and 1642.

82

Indentured servants

Individuals who sold their labor for a fixed number of years in return for passage to the colonies; indentured servants were usually young, unemployed men and could be sold.

83

Proprietary colony

A colony founded as a grant of land by the king to an individual or group of individuals; Maryland (1634) and Carolina (1663) were proprietary colonies, as was Pennsylvania (1681).

84

Enlightenment

1600

85

Harvard

founded first American College named after a Charlestown minister, John Harvard in 1636. Established by Puritan theologians to create a place to train ministers

86

printing press

First operated in the colonies in 1639, by 1695 there were more printing presses in American than England.

87

1647

Massachusetts law states that every town needs to provide for schooling

88

1662

Halfway covenant

89

1685

Huguenots migrate to America

90

1692

Salem witchcraft trials

91

1693

College of William and Mary (after the King and Queen)

92

1697

jkldjls

93

1701

Yale founded in New Haven CT by benefactor Elihu Yale because of liberalism of Harvard.

94

1720

Cotton Mather starts smallpox innoculations

95

1734

Great Awakening begins

96

1739

George Whitefield arrives in America/Great Awakening intensifies/Stono Slave rebellion

97

1740

Indigo production begins

98

1746

Collegeof NJ becomes Princeton NJ First president was Jonathan Edwards

99

1755

University of Pennsylvania

100

1763

Paxton Boys-band of PA frontiersmen decended on Philly to demand tax relief and financial support for defenses against Indians. Bloodshed averted by concession from the colonial assembly.

101

1764

Sugar Act was a raised the duty on sugar while lower the duty on Molasses. (Currency Act the same year).

102

1765

Mutiny Act required colonists to provide quartering to British soldiers.British ship searched for smugglers.

103

1765

Stamp Act tax on every printed document. Strictly attempt to raise revenues. Affects everyone.

104

1766

Stamp Act repealed

105

1767

Charles Townshend dies

106

1770

Lord North repeals all the Townshend Acts except the tax on tea.

107

French and Indian War (1754-1763)

between the 3 powers French, English and Iroquois. French offered indians tolerance, English offered goods.French assimilated with Indians--stronger bonds. Happened at Fort Necessity with Washington surrendering. Lasted 9 years.

108

Seven Years' War (1754-1763)

Seven Years' War begins (England) Struggle between England and France. Fighting spread to West Indies, India and Europe itself. Main struggle remained in North America (F & I War).

109

Peace of Paris (1763)

French ceded to Great Britain lands west of the Mississippi to the Spanish empire, West Indies, India and Canada, and anything French east of the Mississippi.

110

Proclamation of 1763

Forbade settlers to go beyond the Appalachain mountains. Ineffective as white settlers continued to swarm across boundary in the Ohio Valley. New agreements in 1768 pushed the boundary farther west. Also at the same time a band of Paxton Boys decended on Philadelphia demanding tax relief and support against Indians. Colonial assembly conceded and bloodshed avoided.

111

Sugar Act (1764)

duty on sugar, lowered the duty on molasses; but the tax would be collected.HIts rum drinkers hard.

112

Stamp Act (1765)

tax on every printed document. Strictly an attempt to raise revenues for the England w/o consent of colonial assemblies. Grenville's plan antagonized and unified the colonies. Patrick Henry made dramatic speech that caused the cry of treason(he spoke against the king and said he might lose his head too). Who uses paper the most - newspapers and lawyers.

113

Stamp Act repealed (1766)

after much protests and boycotts of British goods. Benjamin Franklin had directly addressed Parliament.

114

Declaratory Act (1766)

put in with the repeal of the Stamp Act declaring that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies in all cases.

115

Townshend Duties (1767)

imposed new taxes on paint, paper, tea, lead (Paint the Town shed with lead based paint while drinking tea in a paper cup.)

116

Boston "Massacre" (1770 March 5)

Boston Massacre was an event in MA that happened before the news of the repeal of the Townshend duties was known. "Liberty Boys" pelted sentries at the customs house with rocks and snowballs. British soldiers let fire into the crowd killing 5 people.

117

1770

Most Townshend Duties repealed except the tax on tea.

118

Committee of Correspondance (1772)

Sam Adams decries Boston Massacre and says England is corrupt. He proposes this committee to publicize grievances against England. Formed a loose intercolonial network of political organizations

119

Gaspee Incident (1772)

the result of growing resentment over the Navigation Acts. Colonists seized a British revenue ship on lower Delaware River. Rhode Island residents boarded a British schooner, the Gaspee', and set it afire and it sank.

120

Tea Act, Boston Tea Party(1773)

some colonial leaders made plans to prevent the East India Co from landing its cargo. Phil and NY kept the tea from leaving the ships . Boston staged drama on December 16--3 ships, 150 men masquerading as Mohawk Indians went aboard the ships and dumped the tea in the harbor.

121

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) (1774)

Closed the Boston port; Reduced the power of the gov't in MA; American royal officers can be tried in other colonies or England; Provides for the quartering of troops by the colonists.

122

First Continental Congress (1774)

resulted in 5 decisions (REACT) Reject a plan for colonial union under British rule (Galloway Plan); Endorse a statement of grievances and demand a repeal of all oppressive acts; Approve having military preparations to defend against British possible attack in Boston; Concur to boycotts that ceases trade with Britain; They would meet in the spring again.

123

Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775)

are considered to be the beginnings of the War for Independence.

124

Battle of Bunker Hill (Breeds Hill) (1775)

Both the British and Colonialist fought courageously. Capturing this hill would be paramount tactically. British won, 1.034 casualties (almost half). Americans had 4-600 casualties. Americans needed leadership--George Washington came in July.

125

Pontiac's Rebellion

The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict (enforcement of Proclamtion Line).

126

Stamp Act Congress

it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation. The Declaration of Rights contains fourteen statements. The first six lay groundwork, proclaiming loyalty to the crown, and asserting that, according to the Rights of Englishmen and the more general "freedom of a people", only representatives chosen by the colonists could levy taxes. Because Parliament did not have such representatives, it could not levy taxes. The seventh statement asserts that the Rights of Englishmen afford all colonists the right to trial by jury. The remaining statements protest the unconstitutionality of the Stamp Act, express the economic consequences act (which, among other things, would reduce trade to the detriment of English manufacturers), and reiterated the rights of the colonists to petition the crown and Parliament.

127

Virginia Resolves

a series of resolutions passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses in response to the Stamp Act of 1765

128

Crispus Attucks

was an American slave, merchant seaman and dockworker of Wampanoag and African descent. Crispus is often credited as the first person shot dead by British redcoats during the Boston Massacre, in Boston, Massachusetts

129

Galloway Plan

was put forward in the First Continental Congress of 1774. Joseph Galloway was a Pennsylvania delegate who wanted to keep the Thirteen Colonies in the British Empire. He suggested the creation of an American colonial parliament to act together with the Parliament of Great Britain. On matters relating to the colonies each body would have a veto over the other's decisions

130

1754

Beginning of French and Indian War between the 3 powers French, English and Iroquois. French offered indians tolerance, English offered goods.French assimilated with Indians--stronger bonds. Happened at Fort Necessity with Washington surrendering. Lasted 9 years.

131

1756

Seven Years' War begins (Enland) Struggle between England and France. Fighting spread to West Indies, India and Europe itself. Main struggle remained in North America (F & I War).

132

1760

George III becomes King - determined to reassert authority of the monarchy. He removed Whigs' stable government with unstable coalition. King had serious intellectual and psychological problems. Problems with the new prime minister George Grenville also complicated matter although he share the same opinion as the King.

133

1763

Peace of Paris and Proclamation of 1763 French ceded to Great Britain lands west of the Mississippi to the Spanish empire, West Indies, India and Canada, and anything French east of the Mississippi.

134

1763

Proclamation of 1763 - Forbade settlers to go beyond the Appalachain mountains. Ineffective as white settlers continued to swarm across boundary in the Ohio Valley. New agreements in 1768 pushed the boundary farther west. Also at the same time a band of Paxton Boys decended on Philadelphia demanding tax relief and support against Indians. Colonial assembly conceded and bloodshed avoided.

135

1764

Sugar Act raised the duty on sugar, lowered the duty on molasses; not all were affected by this act.

136

1765

Stamp Act is a tax on every printed document. Affects everyone. Strictly an attempt to raise revenues for the England w/o consent of colonial assemblies. Grenville's plan antagonized and unified the colonies. Patrick Henry made dramatic speech that caused the cry of treason(he spoke against the king and said he might lose his head too).

137

1766

Stamp Act repealed Rockingham after much protests and boycotts of British goods.

138

1766

Declaratory Act was slyly put in with the repeal of the Stamp Act declaring that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies in all cases.

139

1767

Townshend Duties - He imposed new taxes on paint, paper, tea, lead (Paint the Town shed with lead based paint while drinking tea in a paper cup.)

140

1770 (March 5)

Boston Massacre was an event in MA that happened before the news of the repeal of the Townshend duties was known. "Liberty Boys" pelted sentries at the customs house with rocks and snowballs. British soldiers let fire into the crowd killing 5 people.

141

1770

Most Townshend Duties repealed except the tax on tea.

142

1771

.Regulator movement in North Carolina - small scale civil war when the Regulators, farmers of the upcountry, organized and armed themselves to resist paying high taxes that local sheriffs collected. An army of militiamen crushed revolt. This is a skirmish of sorts because it's an internal conflict instead of taking it to all the American colonies.

143

1772

Committee of Correspondance - Sam Adams decries Boston Massacre and says England is corrupt. He proposes this committee to publicize grievances against England. Formed a loose intercolonial network of political organizations

144

1772

Gaspee Incident was the result of growing resentment over the Navigation Acts. Colonist seized a British revenue ship on lower Delaware River. Rhode Island residents boarded a British schooner, the Gaspee', and set it afire and it sank.

145

1773

Tea Act, Boston Tea Party- some colonial leaders made plans to prevent the East India Co from landing its cargo. Phil and NY kept the tea from leaving the ships and Charleston they stored in a public warehouse. Boston staged drama on December 16--3 ships, 150 men masquerading as Mohawk Indians went aboard the ships and dumped the tea in the harbor.

146

1774

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) were CRAP. Closed the Boston port; Reduced the power of the gov't in MA; American royal officers can be tried in other colonies or England; Provides for the quartering of troops by the colonists.

147

1774

First Continental Congress in Philadelphia resulted in 5 decisions (REACT) Reject a plan for colonial union under British rule; Endorse a statement of grievances and demand a repeal of all oppressive acts; Approve having military preparations to defend against British possible attack in Boston; Concur to boycotts that ceases trade with Britain; They would meet in the spring again.

148

1775

Battles of Lexington and Concord are considered to be the beginnings of the War for Independence.

149

1775

Battle of Bunker Hill (Breeds Hill) - Both the British and Colonialist fought courageously. Capturing this hill would be paramount tactically. British won, 1.034 casualties (almost half). Americans had 4-600 casualties. Americans needed leadership--George Washington came in July.

150

Second Continental Congress (1775)

met in Philadelphia (except Georgia) to support the war but disagreed about its purpose. Adams cousins and Richard Henry Lee supported independence and John Dickinson for Pa (Quaker) hoped for quick reconciliation of grievances. During the first year of fighting many began changing their minds.

151

Thomas Paine's Common Sense (1776)

pamphlet written to crystallize impassioned feelings toward building support for independence. Common sense for Americans to break from Britain a country who could inflict such brutality on its citizens.

152

Declaration of Independence July 4- (1776)

committee was appointed to draft a formal declaration of independence. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Ben Franklin. To be totally absolved from Britain.

153

Battle of Trenton (1776)

surprise attack on the Hessians Christmas night by Washington and his men crossing the Delaware.

154

1777

Articles of Confederation Adopted

155

British defeat at Saratoga (1777)

diplomatic turning point in the war, brings French assistance

156

1778

French American Alliance

157

1781

Articles of Confederation Ratified - required approval by all 13 states. Broad disagreements became evident. Small states wanted equal representation and large states wanted it to be based on population. States claiming western lands needed to turn those territories over to national gov't. Confederation lasted from 1781-1789 not a failure, not a success. Lacked powers to deal with interstate issues or enforce will on states.

158

1781

Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown after being surrounded.

159

1783

Treaty of Paris

160

natural rights

what all humans have a right to (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

161

social contract

between citizen and government, one gives up some rights for the protection of others

162

Locke

2nd Treatise on Government (life, liberty, and property)

163

Montesquieu

power controlling power - checks and balances

164

Rosseau

social contract theorist

165

The Wealth of Nations (1776)

Adam Smith , capitalism, lazziex faire, "invisible hand"

166

Marquis de Lafayette

one Washington's top aides

167

Comte de Grasse

French navy at Yorktown, must have

168

Baron von Steuben

drill meister at Valley Forge

169

Olive Branch Petition

was adopted by the Continental Congress in July 1775 in a fortified attempt to avoid a full-blown war between the Thirteen Colonies that the Congress represented, and Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict. However, the Petition succeeded the July 6 Declaration of Taking up Arms which made its efficacy in London dubious

170

On Cause and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

a document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the American Revolutionary War. The final draft of the Declaration was written by John Dickinson, who incorporated language from an earlier draft by Thomas Jefferson

171

Sons of Liberty

an organization of American patriots that originated in the pre-independence North American British colonies. The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to take to the streets against the abuses of the British government. They are best known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773 in reaction to the Tea Act, which led to the Intolerable Acts (an intense crackdown by the British government), and a counter-mobilization by the Patriots

172

Committees of Observation

They became shadow government that took actual control of the colonies away from royal officials who became increasingly helpless. These committees in part grew out of the less formal Sons of Liberty groups, which started to appear in the 1760s as means to discuss and spread awareness of the concerns of the time, and often consisted of every male adult in the community.

173

Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason)

drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to rebel against "inadequate" government. It influenced a number of later documents, including the United States Declaration of Independence (1776), the United States Bill of Rights (1789), and the French Revolution's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789).

174

Sam Adams

Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies. Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution.

175

Richard Henry Lee

June 4, 1776. "Resolved: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."

176

Patrick Henry

led the opposition to the Stamp Act of 1765 and is remembered for his "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech. He is regarded as one of the most influential champions of Republicanism and an invested promoter of the American Revolution and its fight for independence.

177

Benjamin Franklin

Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately.

178

The Confederation Congress

acted as the body of government from 1781 until the Constitution was written in 1787. Passed both the Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

179

Alexander Hamilton

was a very renowned and successful lawyer around this time. He was a Scottish man that called for a thing he called a national convention or impost. This convention would be held in order to alter the Articles of Confederation. He followed in the footsteps of Morris.

180

James Madison

Father of the Constitution (Virginia Plan). Introduced, to the 1st congress, what became the Bill of Rights.

181

The Founding Fathers

was a group of men that are noted for adopting the formation of the government that we have today as well as helping to create the country.

182

Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia - 1787)

(everywhere but from Rhode Island) The convention was originally intended to revise the Articles of Confederation but eventually led to the development of the Constitution and a new entire form of government.

183

Edmund Randolph

Randolph stated that there needed to be a system of checks and balances with three divided levels of power. These levels would be called the judicial, legislative and executive.

184

William Patterson/New Jersey Plan

was a plan composed by Patterson in reaction to the Virginia plan. This plan said that Government should remain the same with no changes (eg unicameral). It was rejected in favor of the Virginia Plan.

185

The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

small states received equal representation in the senate while large population states received proportion representation in the House

186

Separation of power/checks and balances

was the system that was created out of the great compromise as well as the Virginia plan that divided the powers. The system divided the power evenly into levels and groups that were designed to keep check on each of the others ((eg presidential veto of congress).

187

Federalists/Federalist Papers

name given to the supporters of the Constitution. Documents written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that spoke of supporting the Constitution

188

Anti Federalists

were a group that was against the Constitution. They feared a repressive central government and wanted explicit protections to civil liberties.Included George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee

189

The Bill of Rights

was the first ten amendments to the constitution. The bills included such details as freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion.

190

The Judiciary Acts of 1789

created the Supreme Court and other "inferior" courts

191

Report on Manufactures

was an outlined plan by Alexander Hamilton to stimulate the growth of industry.

192

The First Bank of America

this idea was sparked from Hamilton wanting to pay off the national debt. Nowhere in the Constitution did congress have the explcit power to so. This is the origin of a loose interpretation of the Constitution.

193

Whiskey Rebellion

congress made a tax on whiskey and some distillers refused to pay it. There was an uprising put down in Pennsylvania, establishes that the president has extensive power to ensure domestic tranquility.

194

Jay's Treaty

tried to get the British soldiers off of their posts and stop England from blocking colonist's ships

195

Thomas Pinckney/ Pinckney's Treaty

Jay's treaty paved the way for negotiatons with Spain and opened the door for Thomas Pinckney. He created Pinckney's Treaty which was signed in 1795. Spain said that America had the right to go all over the Mississippi and drop off goods into New Orleans.

196

Prince Talleyrand/ XYZ Affair

John Adams appointed a bipartisan commission to negotiate with France in order to stabilize peace. Prince Talleyrand sent 3 agents to talk with the US delegation to demand a loan for France and a bribe for France before anything went down. But Pinckney wouldn't do it, he said "NO, NO! Not a sixpence!" Adams urged congress to prepare for war

197

The "Quasi War"

was the sea war between France and America.

198

The Alien and Sedition Acts

was a way for the Federalists to get ahead of the Republican Party. The Alien Act was a restriction on aliens coming into the United States, increased the years necessary to become a citizen and vote. The Sedition Acts prosecuted people who spoke against the government plan.

199

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

the Kentucky legislature was written by Thomas Jefferson, and the Virginia legislature was written by James Madison. Asserted that states could interpose and nullify federal laws

200

Land Ordinance of 1785

A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.

201

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery

202

Shay's Rebellion

A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. Caused several of the founders to believe that the central government needed more "energy" or power.

203

Annapolis Convention (1785)

attempt to amend the Articles of Confederation, failed because of lack of attendance. Led to the calling of the Philadelphia Convention.

204

Mount Vernon Conference

Successful at solving navigation and trade problems between Virginia and Maryland. Led to the calling of the Annapolis Convention.

205

Marbury v Madison

Stemmed from the midnight appointmetns of outgoing Presdient John Addams. Provided that the Supreme Court had judicial reveiw over federal laws.

206

Republican Mother

Help trained the new generation for citizenship. Helped speed the creation of female academies throughout the nation (1789 Mass required public schools serve females and other states gradually followed)

207

Second Great Awakening

It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ.

208

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Napolean offered this because he didn't have resources to have to resources to establish empire in AmericaUS paid $15 million, grant exclusive commercial rights, and incorporated Louisiana people. Jefferson was pleased, but embarrassed because Constitution gave no direct authority.

209

Embargo

Prohibited American ships from leaving the US for any foreign port. Widely evaded, effective enough to create serious depression--hardest hit were merchants and shipowners (Federalists). Persuaded England to repeal blockade, but repeal came too late to prevent war.

210

Battle of New Orleans

British forces were no match for Andrew Jackson's well-protected men. US and Britain signed a peace treaty weeks before this battle, made Jackson a national hero

211

John Marshall

Chief of Justice who shaped many rulings and strengthened judiciary

212

Turnpike Era

Toll road of crushed stone that inspired difficult process of turnpike building, as horse-drawn vehicles could not travel at incline. There were complicated roads, and mt. roads were not built until gov. involved.

213

Chesapeake-Leopard Incident

Americans refused Brits to search, opened fire, and Brits took four men. America wanted revenge, but Jefferson expelled Brit ships and demanded an end to impressment. Instead, compensation was offered, but England refused to renounce impressment.

214

Tecumseh

was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. Tecumseh has become an iconic folk hero in American, Aboriginal and Canadian history.

215

Battle of Tippecanoe

Disillusioned many of the Prophet's followers and Tecumesh returned to find confederacy in disarray. Gov Harrison thought the only solution to make the West safe by driving British out of Canada and annex that province to the US.

216

Francis Scott Key

Recorded pride in the moment by writing Star Spangled Banner (old English drinking song).

217

Noble Savages

Native Americans (uncivilized but not uncivilizable). Hoped that schooling Indians would "uplift" tribes, but there were no efforts for African Americans.

218

Barbary States

Morocco, Algiers, Punis, Tripoli. They demanded annual tribute in exchange for protection; Jefferson was reluctant.Tripoli was unhappy, Am. Flag chopped down (war), which stopped payment of tribute, but paid the ransom

219

Northern Confederacy

Extreme Federalists (Essex Junto) thought only recourse for NE was to secede from the Union and form "northern confederacy". For any hope, it would have to include NY and NJ as well, but Alexander Hamilton refused. Turned to Aaron Burr, who dueled Hamilton.

220

William Henry Harrison

Advocate of westernland development... Harrison Law Land meant it was easier for white settlers to acquire farms. Gov of Indiana to propose to Indians to either convert or move (give up all tribal lands & US acquired lands). (Brits in Canada became defensive and befriended Indians)

221

War Hawks

Eager young congressmen who highly supported war

222

Midwifery

Physicians started to take over deliveries

223

Robert Fulton

Invented the steamboat; "Clermont" (1807) was large enough to carry passengers

224

Lewis and Clark

Jefferson acquired Lewis (who acquired Clark) to investigate geography and Indians. 1804-1806 Lewis & Clary with Sacagawea as interpretator from St. Louis

225

Impressment

British navy to its people: "floating hell"--most had to be impressed into service. Many would escape to American navy, but British raided ships and took both Brits and Americans

226

Macon's Bill No.2

(185) Reopened free commercial relations with Britain and France

227

Henry Clay

Elected Speaker of House in 1811 and appointed John Calhoun of SC to Committee of Foreign Affairs. Declaration of war against Britain

228

Hartford Convention

Delegates from NE states met in Hartford to discuss grievances against Madison administration Reasserted right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution (to protect NE from growing influence of South and West)

229

Burned Over district

In the early nineteenth century, upstate New York was called the "burned-over district" because of the numerous revivals that crisscrossed the region.[7][8] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term.

230

Charles Finney

He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. Finney was best known as an innovative revivalist, an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor of women and African-Americans, a religious writer, and president at Oberlin College.

231

McCulloch v. Maryland

...The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. . The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution. This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.

232

Dartmouth v. Woodward

The case arose when the president of The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the free American enterprise system.

233

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

In 1785, the Charles River Bridge Company had been granted a charter to construct a bridge over the Charles River connecting Boston and Cambridge. When the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sanctioned another company to build the Warren Bridge, chartered 1828, that would be very close in proximity to the first bridge and would connect the same two cities, the proprietors of the Charles River Bridge claimed that the Massachusetts legislature had broken its contract with the Charles River Bridge Company, and thus the contract had been violated. The Court ultimately sided with Warren Bridge. This decision was received with mixed opinions, and had some impact on the remainder of Taney's tenure as Chief Justice.

234

Sacagawea

was a Lemhi Shoshone woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States. She traveled thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean between 1804 and 1806.

235

Hamilton's First Report on Credit

The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations to reorganize the national debt and to establish the public credit. Called for full federal payment at face value to holders of government securities and the national government to assume funding of all state debt

236

Hamilton's Second Report on Credit

called for the establishment of a central bank, its primary purpose to expand the flow of legal tender by monetizing the national debt through the issuance of federal bank notes

237

Hamilton's Report on Manufactures

the United States needed to have a sound policy of encouraging the growth of manufacturing and secure its future as a permanent feature of the economic system of the nation. He argued these could be achieved through bounties or subsidies to industry, regulation of trade with moderate tariffs (not intended to discourage imports but to raise revenue to support American manufacturing through subsidy), and other government encouragement The principal ideas of the "Report" would later be incorporated into the "American System" program by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and his Whig Party.

238

Citizen Genet

French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)

239

XYZ Affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters

240

Alien Act

1798 (JA), gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US

241

Sedition Act

1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

242

Kentucky Resolution

written by jefferson; introduced nullification; states have right to judge laws made and if be, declare laws null and void

243

Virginia Resolution

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

244

elastic clause

The Necessary and Proper Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause.[1]) is the provision in Article One of the United States Constitution, section 8, clause 18: The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

245

Adams-Onís Treaty

(204) Spain ceded all of Floride to the US and gave up claim to territory north of the 42nd parallel in Pacific Northwest. American govt gave up claims to Texas--for a time.

246

Missouri Compromise

(205) Combined Maine and Missouri proposals into a single bill; Maine would be free and Missouri a slave state. Happy resolution of a danger to the Union.

247

McCulloch v. Maryland

(206) 1819 Marshall confirmed "implied powers" of Congress by upholding the constitutionality of the Bank of US. Unpopular in the South/West (states tried to drive out of business). States taxing could lead to them taxing it to death.

248

Worcester v. Georgia

(208) Georgia tried to regulate access to Cherokee country. Marshall invalidated law, and only federal govt had authority (empowered tribe like states, but under federal rule)

249

Monroe Doctrine

(209) 1823 JQA wrote Europe to stay our of LA (could not enforce, but British could... it was important to trade with America) recognized country's independence

250

Andrew Jackson

(201,4) Commanded American troops along Florida... invaded and seized Spanish forts at St. Marks and Pensacola (Seminole War). Demonstrated that US could easily take Florida by force

251

Second Bank of the United States

(196) More capital and couldn't forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel state banks to issue only sound notes.

252

Protective Tariff

(196) End of war dimmed prospects for A industry. Congress passed a tariff law to limit competition from abroad (cotton cloth).

253

John Jacob Astor, America Fur Co.

(200) After War of 1812, JJAF Co extended operations from Great Lakes westward to Rockies. Trappers increased and mountain men closely bound up with market economy, which bulk of profits flowed to merchants, not trappers.

254

Era of Good Feelings

(201-203) Expansion of economy, growth of white settlement and trade in West, and creation of states all reflected rising spirit of nationalism.

255

James Monroe

(201) Decline of Federalists and no important international threats, so Monroe attempted to end partisan divisions and factional disputes.

256

John Quincy Adams

(202-203) Great diplomat and committed nationalist (promoted American expansion) Secretary of state, Adams began negotiations with Spain over Florida.

257

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

(206) 1819 Further expanded contract clause of Constitution. Republicans tried to revise Dart C's charter to convert from private to state uni. Daniel Webster argued... placed important restrictions on the ability of state govts to control corporations.

258

Gibbons v. Ogden

(207) Court strengthened Congress' power to regulate commerce. Important issue was whether Congress' power to give Gibbons a license superseded NY's power to grant Odgen monopoly. Increased federal role in promoting economic growth and protected corporations from local govt interference.

259

Corrupt Bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

260

Tariff of Abominations

(211) Manufactured goods protected and (in South) raw materials cost more. When Adams signed, the South was angered

261

John C. Calhoun

resigned Vice Presdiency to fight against "Tariff of Abominations", wrote South Carolina Exposition on Nullification

262

South Carolina Exposition on Nullification

Clained that a majority of states could nullify a federal alw. Additionally, if a majority did not vote nullify that any state that did vote to nullify could exit the union.

263

Force Bill

1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.

264

John Jacob Astor

Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.

265

American Fur Company

Founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808; grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States by 1830, and became one of the largest businesses in the country; worked south of the Columbia River in Oregon

266

Seminole War

For seven years the Seminole Indians, joined by runaway black slaves, waged a bitter guerrilla war that took the lives of some fifteen hundred. Their spirit was broken in 1837, when the American field commander treacherously seized their leader, Osceola, under the flag of truce. The war dragged on for 5 more years, but the Seminole were defeated.

267

Henry Clay

Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state, also developed the "American System"

268

Gibbons v. Ogden

(JMon) interstate commerce, In this Marshall Court case, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state monopoly and reaffirmed Congress' power to oversee commerce between states. Of all the cases that have interpreted the scope of congressional power under the commerce clause, none has been more important than this

269

Monroe Doctrine

1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe.

270

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the Cherokee case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act

271

spoils system

A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.

272

Nationalism

what: American politicians advocated programs for the supremacy of the central gov. over the states, to make America a nation without equal. chose to present their programs in such a way as to appeal to the common man. Importance:

273

Second Bank of the United States ("2d BUS")

what: bank that made state banks use only good notes Importance: part of federalism vision, control on notes in country

274

Francis Cabot Lowell

what: Boston merchant, probably part of industrial espionage Importance: developed mill that was more powerful then ones in england

275

Waltham, Ma

what: City where Fracis Cabot Lowell founded his powerful mill Importance: 1st place where processes of spinning and weaving under same roof in America

276

Textiles

what: making of yarn and thread to be used in households Importance:major part of american industry from 1807-1815

277

Protectionism/Tariffs

what: bill put in placed to stop constant inflow of British goods in America Importance: caused american citizens to pay higher prices for manufactured goods

278

The National Road

what: road from Potomac river to Ohio Importance: start to get rid of distance problem in US, increased commerce

279

the Lancaster Pike

what: small model for infrastructure in early 1800s in US Importance: made people realize that infrastructure without financial aid from Gov was impractical

280

Internal Improvement

what: The building of canals and roads, the improvement of harbors, and the clearing of rivers Importance: to improve transportation and stimulate commerce, major part of the postwar nationalistic program.

281

Green Seed Cotton

what: it harder to clean because the seeds will stick to the cotton fibers. Importance: need for easier way to clean cotton

282

The cotton Gin

what: Device that could clean cotton quicker then by hand Importance: led to rise in cotton and slave industry

283

The Santa Fe Trail

what: A principal routes to the Far West. opened by William Becknell, an American trader, in 1821. Importance: tied the New Mexican area economically to the rest of the US and hastened American settlers to the region.

284

The Great American Desert

what: land between Missouri river and Rocky mountains, labeled by Stephen H. Long Importance: Gave Americans the idea land way unfit for cultivation and inhabitble for people wishing to farm there

285

The Era of Good Feelings

what: Started during James Monroe Administration Importance: caused Federalist Party to cease to exist

286

Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819

what: Spain gave Florida to the US, who gave up Texas and $5 million of U.S. claims against Spain. Importance: settled border disputes between Spain and the US

287

Panic of 1819

what: american goods in high demand in foreign countries Importance:

288

Missouri Compromise

what: Missouri became a slave state, Maine became a free state in 1819 Importance: During Northwest Ordinances, stated no slaves states North of Ohio River, Missouri was north of River

289

Chief Justice John Marshall

what: Chief Justice of US supreme Court from 1801 to 1835 Importance: developed constitution, strengthened court, increased fed power, federalist

290

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

what: NH legislature trying to make college a state university Importance: Marshal again said Gov could not interfere with a legal charter even though it was from england

291

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

what: Georgia state legislature trying to resend a sketchy contract with Yazoo Land Company Importance: through strict reading of constitution, Marshall said "No US law could impair a contract even though contained fraud"

292

Cohens v. Virginia (1821)

what/ Importance: Marshal affirmed constitutionality of federal review of state court decisions because it was states who had ratified the constitution, therefore they must submit to federal juristiction

293

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

what: Whether or not 2nd US bank was constitutional, Importance: was under Necessary and Proper clause, start of expansion of federal power

294

The Necessary and Proper Clause/"The Elastic Clause"/"Implied Powers"

what: authorizes Congress to make "all laws" necessary and proper to carry out its powers Importance: could be viewed strictly or loosely for whoever's political gain

295

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

what: NY state Legislature granted steamboat transportation Monopoly to Fulton and Livingston, who then gave it to Aaron Odgen, was challenged by Gibbons, who won in supreme court, under Fed Gov regulating commerce Importance: Gave federal Primacy over State governments economicly

296

Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

what:GA state legislature trying to regulate access to Cherokee country, Marshall said that they were distinct entities, with territoria boundries Importance: Affirmed that only Fed. Gov. could deal with the indians

297

The Monroe Doctrine (1823)

what: Western Hemisphere was off limits to further European colonization and U.S. would consider any effort by the Europe as a threat and would take action Importance: start of the US as supreme power in Americas

298

King Caucus

what: only party delegations could select president Importance: overthrown, nominations came from the people insteaad

299

Henry Clay

what: Speaker of the house, Proposed the american system Importance: essentially was still the federalist party trying to make it in politics under a different name.

300

The American System

what: designed to foster commercial growth and economic stability, consisted of a tariff to protect "infant industries" and American jobs , a national bank and an internal-improvements paid by the fed gov. Importance: the three elements of taxing, banking, and spending were linked so that made it difficult to oppose one without opposing them all.

301

Twelfth Amendment

what: House of Representatives to choose president if none of the candidates had a majority Importance: caused John Quincy Adams to be chosen as president instead of Andrew Jackson, who had a bigger popular vote

302

The "Corrupt Bargain"

what: John Quincy Adams selecting Henry Clay to be Secretary of state, after he received political support from him Importance: Normally whoever was selected to be secretary of state would become the next president.

303

The "tariff of Abominations"

what: supposed to be on imported goods, originally supported by New England states, in order to get other states ended up hurting the northern states Importance: caused talks of succession in other states

304

King George III

The king of England during the time of the Revolution. -controlled the colonies with the aid of Parliament -not very present as a leader

305

The Glorious Revolution

The event that leads English into a constitutional monarchy -there are a series of civil wars until William -the king is now under Parliament

306

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

307

The Sugar Act

A law passed by Parliament in 1764 thatplaced a taxon sugar, molasses, and other products shippped to the colonies, also called harsh punishment of smugglers.

308

The Stamp Act

A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and playing cards

309

William Pitt

British secretary of state during the Seven Years War.

310

George Grenville

British prime minister who thought that the colonists should have to pay taxes

311

The Continental Congress

The gathering of 12 colonies to set up a boycott of British goods (in response to the Intolerable Acts

312

The Battles of Lexington and Concord

The first battles of the Revolution.

313

What most earliest migrants used to cross from Asia to North America (Alaska) approximately 11,000 yrs. ago:

Bering Strait

314

The land-based migrants to the Americas heritage and name:

Mongolians of modern day Siberia; The Clovis People

315

The Archaic Period refers to:

the early history of humans in America starting in 8000 B.C.

316

The largest Native American empire in the Americas, stretching 2,000 miles was:

The Incan Empire along western South America in Peru

317

The most elaborate Indian civilizations of the Americas were in:

South Am.,Central Am., and Mexico

318

People of Mexico and Central America:

Mesoamericans, 10,000 B.C.

319

Mayan civilizations were in what time frame:

800 A.D.

320

the tribe that superseded the Mayans:

Aztecs or Mexica

321

Famous city of the Mexica built in 1300 A.D.:

Tenochtitlan

322

Indian trading center near present day St. Louis with population of over 40,000 in 1200 A.D.:

Cahokia

323

Largest Native American language groups:

Algonquian tribes, Iroquois Confederacy, and the Muskogean tribes

324

Native American religion focused on what:

the natural world

325

Northern Indian tribes had less substantial societies and depended on what:

hunting and gathering

326

European exploration was caused by:

rebound of population from black plague, and a new, stronger government

327

The preeminent maritime power, led by Henry the Navigator:

the Portuguese

328

rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1486:

Bartholomeu Dias

329

traveled by sea, all around the cape to India from 1497-1498:

Vasco da Gama

330

Queen Isabella agreed to let who sail under Spain with Spain's support, 90 men, and three ships:

Christopher Columbus

331

Florentine merchant who gained recognition in discovery of Americas through writings of vivid descriptions:

Amerigo Vespucci;