Unit 0 - Basic Skills Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 0 - Basic Skills Deck (37):

List and describe the characteristics of living organisms

Movement - ability to move
Respiration - organisms taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide. The release of energy from the chemical breakdown of glucose. Glucose reacts with O2 to make ATP.
Sensitivity - can sense the organism's surroundings.
Circulation - Able to move food, gasses, and wastes around their body. eg circulation of blood
Growth - Getting bigger (more matter)
Reproduction - cells and offspring
Excretion - getting rid of waste products
Nutrition - need nutrition to function.


What are living organisms made of?



Draw and describe the structure of a palisade cell and an animal cell (liver) as seen under a light microscope



Describe functions of structures of palisade and liver cell as seen under a microscope.

Cell wall - strengthens the cell. Helps the plant stay stiff. Turgid.
*Cell membrane - controls the entry and exit of chemicals into the cell.
*Nucleus - contains genetic material which controls the cell's activities
Chloroplast - contains chlorophyll which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
(*)Vacuoles - contains chemicals/liquid.
*Cytoplasm - Most chemical reactions take place here, controlled by enzymes. Stores organelles.
*Mitochondria - most energy is released by respiration here.

Liver cell:
Ribosome - protein synthesis happens here.
Parts with an * is also present in animal cells.


How to calculate magnification and size of specimens using millimetres as units

Magnification = eyepiece x * lens x
eg eyepiece = 10x, lens = 40x, total magnification = 400x

Size of real specimen = measured length / magnification
eg measured specimen = 260mm = 260,000 um.
260,000 / 900 = 2888.89 um

um = micrometre


List the chemical elements that make up carbohydrates, fats and proteins

Carbohydrates = hydrogen, carbon and oxygen
Fats = hydrogen, carbon, oxygen. Same as carbohydrates
Proteins = Nitrogen. Some may contain sulphur.


Describe the structure of large molecules made from smaller basic units

Simple sugars to starch and glycogen
Amino acids to proteins
Fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils


Describe tests for starch, reducing sugars, protein and fats

Starch - add iodine. Positive = turns purple/black

Reducing sugars - Benedict's solution. Blue -> orange/green/red.

Protein - Biuret solution. Blue -> purple.

Fats - Sodium hydroxide and shake. Cloudy
suspension. Or smear on paper towel. Or add ethanol.


List the principal sources of, and describe the importance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins (C and D only), mineral salts (calcium and iron only), fibre (roughage), water.

Carbohydrates: Sugars (glucose, fructose), starches (potatoes, rice, bread), cellulose (vegetable, fruits, wood.
Supplies about 60% of our energy. Cannot be used by the body, helps food push through.
If we don't get it: lack of energy, lose weight, body processes slow.

Fats: Oils, meat, dairy, nuts.
Stored by the body, they provide a store of energy. Supply about 25% of our energy. Insulation.
If we don't get it: lose weight.

Proteins: Eggs, meat, fish.
Muscles and ligaments/tendons, Hair/skin are made of proteins. Supplies materials for muscles.
If we don't get it: Bad hair/skin/injuries

Vitamin C: Citrus fruits.
For eyesight, skin, hair, immune system.

Vitamin D: Sunlight.
For enhancing absorption of calcium and phosphate.

Calcium: from cheese, milk, yoghurt.
For growth and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones.

Iron: liver, vegetables, blood.
To make blood.

Fibre: Vegetables, whole grains.
For healthy bowels.

Water: tap.
For body temperature regulation, cushions and lubricates joints, nourishes and protects the brain, removes waste through perspiration, bowel movements and regulation. Our bodies are composed mostly of water - about 60%.


Describe the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of yoghurt.

The souring of milk is a fermentation process, as it takes place better when oxygen is absent. Fresh milk contains sugars and some bacteria. the bacteria feed on the sugars in the milk. The main sugar in milk is called lactose. Lactose is converted into lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, the increased acidity sours and thickens the milk.


Describe the deficiency symptoms for vitamins C & D, mineral salts (calcium and iron)

Vitamin C:
Anemia (low red blood cell count). Easy fatigue and loss of energy, dizziness, shortness of breath.
Scurvy: general weakness, anemia, gum disease, skin haemorrhages.

Vitamin D: Soft bones (rickets). Bone pain and muscle weakness.

Calcium: Osteoporosis (fragile bones), rickets (softening of bones)

Iron: Anaemia (low red blood cell count). Tiredness and lack of energy.Dizziness. Coldness in hands and feet.


Define "atom" and "molecule"

Atom: The smallest stable unit of matter.

Molecule: 2 or more atoms chemically joined together.


State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases

Particles are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern.
Retains a fixed volume and shape (rigid particles locked into place)
Cannot be compressed
Does not flow easily (rigid particles can't move/slide past one another)

Particles are close together with no regular arrangement.
Assumes shape of container (particles slide past one another)
Not easily compressible
Definite volume
Most liquids expand with an increase of temperature and constant air pressure

Particles are well separated with no regular arrangement.
Assumes shape and volume of its container (particles have enough energy to overcome attractive forces)
The volume of a quantity of gas is dependent on its temperature and the surrounding pressure.
Flows easily
Have no definite shape or volume
If unconstrained the gases will spread out indefinitely
Low density.


Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases.

Closely packed. Regular pattern

Close together with no regular pattern

Particles well separated with no regular arrangement


Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules.



Describe the structure of an atom

A nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons


State the charges and masses of protons, neutrons and electrons

Protons: Positive. Heavy
Neutrons: Neutral. Heavy
Electrons: Negative. Light.



Proton number: the number of protons in an atom
Nucleon number: the number of protons AND neutrons.


Describe the build-up of electrons in "shells" and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of valence electrons

Electron arrangement:
1st shell: 2
2nd shell: 8
3rd shell: 8
4th shell: an amount.

Nobel gases have a full outer electron shell so they do not react.

Valence shell: outermost shell


Use the proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the layout of the periodic table with reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20.



Identify physical and chemical changes, and understand the differences between them.

Physical - changes form but keeps its same chemical composition (reversible)

Chemical - when a substance's composition has been changed.


Difference between elements, compounds and mixtures

Elements only contain one type of atom and cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means and can exist as either atoms or molecules.

Compounds consist of two or more DIFFERENT elements bound together. Can be broken down into a simpler type of matter by chemical means. Has properties that are different from its component elements. Always contains the same ratio of its component elements.

Mixtures consist of two or more different elements and/or compounds PHYSICALLY mingled. Can be separated into its components by physical means and often retains many of the properties of its components. Eg powdered iron and powdered sulphur can be separated using a magnet.


Describe methods of separation and purification: filtration, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation.

Filtration - separates insoluble solids from liquids
Crystallisation - copper sulfate. A saturated solution warmed and cooled so crystals will start to grow.
Distillation - removes souvent from solute, but then condenses it back into liquid.
Fractional distillation - Fractional distillation differs from distillation only in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. A tall column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with low boiling points condense at the top. Like distillation, fractional distillation works because the different substances in the mixture have different boiling points.
Eg oil fractions


Describe paper chromatography

Used to separate and identify components of a mixture. Identify colouring agents for example in food or ink.


Interpret simple chromatograms



State that weight is a force

Weight is a force


Know that the earth is the source of a gravitational field

The earth is the source of a gravitational field


Know that force is measured in newtons (N)

Force is measured in Newtons (N)


Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass

Weight is the effect of a gravitational field on a mass


Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shape solid using the appropriate equation.

Density = mass/volume
D = m/v


Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement, and make the necessary calculation

Put solid in measuring cylinder of water. The increased height/volume = volume of irregular solid.


Describe how forces may change the size, shape and motion of a body

Force producing a change in state of motion gives a body acceleration. If forces acting on a body produces no acceleration, the body will experience some change in configuration: a change of size (longer or shorter), a change of shape (twisted or bent), or a positional change (relative to other masses, charges, or magnets). Changes of size or shape involve elastic properties of materials.


Hooke's Law

Force = constant x extension.
F = kx


Limit of proportionality

A graph of load against extension will be a straight line as long as the elastic limit is not exceeded - so the extension is proportional to the load - so as far as it goes the elastic limit is the limit of proportionality.


Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the forces and distances between the molecules and to the motion of the molecules



Interpret simple chromatograms



Plot and interpret extension/load graphs