Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (45):
The study of medicines, including their administration, their sites of action and their effects
The use of drugs for the prevention and treatment
Anything that helps prevent cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition.
Classification of Drugs- Therapeutic
What the drug is treating
Classification of Drugs- Pharmacologic
How the drug acts in the body
Classification of drugs- Prototype Drug
well understood model drug to which other drugs in a class are compared.
What are the three types of drug names?
Chemical, Generic, and trade, brand, propriety
Chemical Drug Name
Standardized by the international union of pure and applied chemistry.
Generic Drug name
Assigned by the U.S. adopted name council, only one generic name per drug.
Trade, brand, propriety drug name
Drug name assigned by the pharmaceutical company
What is involved in the U.S. pharmacopeia- national formulary drug standards?
quality/purity, strength, therapeutic use, patient saftey, standardized dosage form, safe packaging.
What is the purpose of the FDA?
-Assure safety and efficiency of drugs and medical devices.
- encourages innovation in making drugs more effective, safer, and more affordable.
- Disseminating information about drugs, assures effective drugs are available.
What is the process for drug development?
-Testing animal studies (FDA review)
-Clinical trials- 3 phases
-New drug application
-post marketing surveillance
What is the controlled substances act?
It recognized the abuse and dependency potential of specific drugs and categorized these drugs. Schedule 1 is the highest schedule 5 is the lowest.
Schedule 1 drugs
-Highest potential of abuse, physical dependence, and psychological dependence
-not currently accepted in medical use in the U.S.
Lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision.
-EX: heroin, marijuana, peyote, LSD
Schedule 2 Drugs
-High potential for abuse physical dependence and psychological dependence
-currently accepted medical use in U.S., No refills
-EX: Morphine, cocaine, methadone, methamphetamines, hydrocodone, codeine
Schedule 3 Drugs
- Moderate potential for abuse, moderate to low physical and high psychological dependence.
-currently acceptable in the U.S., five refills allowed in 6 months
-EX: Anabolic steroids and Icetamine
Schedule 4 Drugs
-Lower potential for abuse, lower physical and psychological dependence.
-currently accepted medical use in the U.S., 5 refills in 6 months.
-EX: Benzodiapines, Zolpidem, and Tramadol
Schedule 5 Drugs
-Lowest potential for abuse, lowest physical and psychological dependence
-currently accepted medical use in U.S., can be over the counter, refills as authorized by the company.
-EX: Cough syrups with codeine and anti-diarrheal medicine.
What are the nurses responsibility for controlled substances?
-Keep drugs in secure "Lock box" a double lock is required for narcotics.
-count controlled medications per facilities policy at end and beginning of shift
-2 Nurses always count medicine
-a nurse always witness and signs when a medicine is discarded or wasted.
What are some common concerns for nurses?
Medication errors, assistive personal administering drugs, administering a drug without an order, transporting, delivering, and dispensing drugs, drug dependency.
What are the 10 rights?
-Right client education
-Right to refuse
Why do medication errors happen?
-Lack of knowledge
-Poor communication (EX: bad handwriting)
-Similar drug names
-Stressful work situations
What is considered a drug?
A drug is a anything that is used to prevent, cure, or reduce a symptom of a medical condition.
the medical conditions for which a drug is approved
a medical reference summarizing standards of drug purity, strength, and directions of synthesis.
taking medicine in the manner perscribed by the health care provider
What are the 3 parts of a prescription?
What is in a heading of a prescription?
includes prescribers name, address, number, date
What is included a body of a prescription?
Drug name, dosage, and amount dispensed, patient instructions.
What is included in the closing of a prescriptions?
prescribers signature, refill number, and DEA number of prescriber.
includes drugs deliered to the gastrointestinal tract, either orally, or through nasogastric, or gastrostomy tubes.
Designed to dissolve in the small intestine
administer on the side of mouth with dissolving tablet
Mediation placed under tongue and allowed to slowly dissolve.
When should Sublingual be administered?
after oral medications have been swallowed.
What do you do when a med error has occurred?
-Follow facilities policy and procedures
-Document on patient chart the error, what nursing actions were followed, who was notified about the error
-Complete an incident report
includes medicine applied to the skin or the membranous linings of the eye, ear, nose, respiratory tract, urinary tract, vagina, and rectum.
topical delivery method that uses patches that contain a specified amount of medication that is released over a specified time period.
is used to treat local conditions of the eye and surrounding structures.
used to treat local conditions of the ear, including infections, and accumulation of earwax in auditory canal
is used to treat local conditions such as vaginal infections, pain, and itching
used for either local or systemic drug delivery.
What happens if a therapeutic effect goes extreme?
Then there will BE a adverse effect