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Flashcards in Units2/3 Deck (74):
1

what is the great is barrier for drugs?

Crossing the membrane that separates the drug from the target cells.

2

simple/passive diffusion

movement of a chemical from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

3

facilitated diffusion

no energy need to diffuse but a carrier protein is

4

active transport

energy is need for transport to move molecules against the gradient

5

pharmacokinetics

the study of drugs within the body

6

absorption

the rate, extent, and process of moving a drug from the sight of administration to the blood stream

7

oral med absorption

absorbed in GI or intestine, slow absorption and a slow onset time

8

Topical med absorption

skin or mucous membranes, absorbed slowly in the skin and quickly in the mucous membrane

9

onset

the length of time it takes a drug to produce and affect

10

If the absorption rate is high what happens to the response?

produces a more effective response

11

what has the fastest absorption rate?

IV

12

What is the advantage of administering a medication intradermally?

it has a slow absorption and the effect is localized

13

the _____ absorption, the _____ the onset.

faster, faster

14

What are the advantages of transdermal drug delivery system?

slow, steady absorption

15

what are the disadvantages of transdermal drug delivery system?

skin irritation, slow onset time

16

What are some factors that effect drug absorption?

- dosage form of the drug (pill vs liquid vs cream, etc)
-concentration of the drug
-solubility (fat vs water)
-blood flow
-contact time with absorption site
-presence of food
-surface area

17

What does food do to absorption?

slows it down

18

what happens to absorption with a higher dose of a drug?

produce a faster, greater response, because it produces a higher concentration gradient

19

Bioavailaability

amount of drug that is able to reach the target site to produce it's effect

20

first pass effect

drug metabolized by the liver before it's able to reach systemic circulation

21

Distribution

the movement of drugs fom body fluids to body tissues after they are absorbed

22

what hinders distribution?

bad blood flow to tissues, drug solubility, tissue storage, drug protein binding, barriers

23

free drug

drugs not bound to to plasma proteins, the drugs not bound are able to act on body cells

24

metabolism/biotransformation

method of changing a drug to be more easily excreted

25

what is a prodrug

a drug that can be activated and used until it is metabolized

26

induction

increased enzyme production

27

what is the result of induction

more drug metabolized and need higher dose

28

inhibition

inhibiting liver enzymes

29

what is the result of inhibition?

less drug metabolized and more drug in the blood

30

what effects metabolism?

-lifespan/age
-lifestyle
-diet
-habits
-genetics

31

Excretion

elimination of a drug, either unchanged or as a metabolite from the body

32

What happens when drugs are secreted in the bile?

reabsorbed so metabolites may be recycled multiple times

33

serum drug level

amount of drug in the blood

34

minimum effective concentration (MEC)

amount of drug in the blood required to get a drug action

35

toxic concentration

too much drug causes toxic reactions

36

therapeutic range

between the MEC and Toxic concentration levels

37

therapeutic index

margin of safety of a drug

38

loading dose

a large initial dosing of a drug to achieve rapid minimum effective concentration in the plasma

39

peak and trough levels

highest and lowest plasma concentration of a drug

40

maintenance dose

drugs given to keep plasma drug levels in therapeutic range.

41

peak

highest blood level

42

duration

length of pharmacological action

43

serum half life

time required for serum concentration to be decreased by 50%

44

What needs to happen when you have short half life? a long half life?

more frequent dosing, less frequent dosing

45

potency

the dose at which a drug will produce it's therapeautic effect

46

pharmacodynamics

how the drug changes the body

47

efficiancy

the greatest response that can come from a drug

48

receptors

drug binding sites, effect can stimulate or inhibit cell function,

49

agonist

promote or produce a response

50

antagonist

block a response

51

partial agonist

produces a weaker or less efficient response to a drug

52

down regulation

receptor desensitization can occur through repeated or long term stimulation

53

up regualation

excess excitatory responses can be noted if receptor has been repressed for a long time and then a small dose of a stimulating drug is given.

54

specificity/selectivity

how many different receptors the drug will effect

55

adverse effect

a reaction that occurs other than the desired therapeutic effects of drug therapy

56

Adverse drug reactions

-result in patient death, hospitalization or disability
-cause a congenital abnormality
-cause a life threatening event
-require an intervention to prevent permanent damage

57

what can a nurse do prevent adverse effects?

-take a thorough medical history
- thoroughly assess the patient and all diagnostic data
-prevent medication errors
-monitor pharmocotherapy closely
-know the drugs
-be prepared for the unusual
-question unusual orders
-teach patients about adverse effects

58

hypersensitivity

abnormal exaggerated response to an antigen

59

drug allergy

abnormal reaction to a drug because of prior exposure stimulated the immune system to develop antibodies

60

anaphlaxis

most serious allergic reaction. a medical emergency, with systemic reaction evidenced by dyspnea, cardiac arrhythmia, laryngeal edema, broncospasm, and circulatory collapse.

61

idiosyncratic drug response

an unanticipated or unexplainable response to a drug, often referred to as a paradoxical response, is not considered an allergic response, rare unpredictable varies from patient to patient

62

carcinogen

drug that many cause cancer

63

teratogen

drug that may cause birth defect

64

pregnancy classifications

A, B, C, D, X

65

Additive effect

when 2 drugs from the same therapeutic class are used together for a greater response

66

synergistic effect

when 2 drugs create a bigger response than what you would think if you simply combined them together

67

antagonistic

one drug blocks the effects of another drug

68

displacement

displacing one drug from protein binding sites increases the amount of free drug thereby increasing the drug effect.

69

antidote

reverse or block the toxic effects of another drug

70

binding

drug binds with another drug or food and is unable to be absorbed

71

enzyme induction

increases liver metabolism of drugs

72

drug tolerance

needing more drug to achieve desired effect

73

signs of drug dependence

withdrawal, physical dependence, psychological dependence drug seeking behavior

74

management of a drug overdose

recognition or identification of drugs taken, gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and whole bowel irrigation
treat life threatening symptoms
administer antidotes