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define information systems analysis and design

Information Systems Analysis and Design
Complex organizational process
Used to develop and maintain computer-based information systems
Used by a team of business and systems professionals


Define Application Software

Computer software designed to support organizational functions or processes


define Systems Analyst

Systems Analyst
Organizational role most responsible for analysis and design of information systems


How has the approach to systems analysis and design changed since the 1950s-90s?

A Modern Approach to Systems Analysis and Design
1950s: focus on efficient automation of existing processes
1960s: advent of procedural third generation languages (3GL) faster and more reliable computers
1970s: system development becomes more like an engineering discipline
1980s: major breakthrough with 4GL, CASE tools, object-oriented methods
1990s: focus on system integration, GUI applications, client/server platforms, Internet
The new century: Web application development, wireless PDAs and smart phones, component-based applications, application service providers (ASP)


What is system development methodology

Developing Information Systems
System Development Methodology is a standard process followed in an organization to conduct all the steps necessary to analyze, design, implement, and maintain information systems.


What is the SDLC?

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems


What are the phases in the SDLC

Phases in SDLC:


What is the planning phase?

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Cont.)
Planning – an organization’s total information system needs are identified, analyzed, prioritized, and arranged


what is design phase?

Design – a description of the recommended solution is converted into logical and then physical system specifications


What is the analysis phase?

Analysis – system requirements are studied and structured


What is the differences and similarities to logical design and physical design?

Logical design – all functional features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described independently of any computer platform
Physical design – the logical specifications of the system from logical design are transformed into the technology-specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished


What is physical design

the logical specifications of the system from logical design are transformed into the technology-specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished


what is logical design

all functional features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described independently of any computer platform


what is the implementation phase

Implementation – the information system is coded, tested, installed and supported in the organization
Maintenance – an information system is systematically repaired and improved


What is the maintenance phase

an information system is systematically repaired and improved


What is the waterfall effect of the sdlc?

that one phase does not begin until the previous completes with very little backtracking


What are problems with the waterfall approach?

Problems with Waterfall Approach
Feedback ignored, milestones lock in design specs even when conditions change
Limited user involvement (only in requirements phase)
Too much focus on milestone deadlines of SDLC phases to the detriment of sound development practices


What are the different approaches to improving development?

Different Approaches to Improving Development
CASE Tools
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Agile Methodologies
eXtreme Programming


What are case tools?

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools
Diagramming tools enable graphical representation.
Computer displays and report generators help prototype how systems “look and feel”.
IBM’s Rational products are the best known CASE tools.
Analysis tools automatically check for consistency in diagrams, forms, and reports.
Documentation generators standardize technical and user documentation.
Code generators enable automatic generation of programs and database code directly from design documents, diagrams, forms, and reports.
A central repository provides integrated storage of diagrams, reports, and project management specifications.


what is RAD

Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Decreases design and implementation time
Involves: extensive user involvement, prototyping, integrated CASE tools, code generators
More focus on user interface and system function, less on detailed business analysis and system performance


What are agile methodologies

Agile Methodologies
Motivated by recognition of software development as fluid, unpredictable, and dynamic


What are the 3 key principles of agile methodologies

Three key principles
Adaptive rather than predictive
Emphasize people rather than roles
Self-adaptive processes


When should you use agile methodologies

When to use Agile Methodologies
If your project involves:
Unpredictable or dynamic requirements
Responsible and motivated developers
Customers who understand the process and will get involved


what is extreme programming

eXtreme Programming
Short, incremental development cycles
Automated tests
Two-person programming teams
Coding, testing, listening, designing
Coding and testing operate together


what are the advantages to extreme programming

Communication between developers
High level of productivity
High-quality code


what is OOAD

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD)
Based on objects rather than data or processes
Object: a structure encapsulating attributes and behaviors of a real-world entity
Object class: a logical grouping of objects sharing the same attributes and behaviors
Inheritance: hierarchical arrangement of classes enable subclasses to inherit properties of superclasses


What is RUP

An object-oriented systems development methodology
Establishes four phase of development: inception, elaboration, construction, and transition
Each phase is organized into a number of separate iterations.


what is our approach to systems

Our Approach to Systems Development
The SDLC is an organizing and guiding principle in this book.
We may construct artificial boundaries or artificially separate activities and processes for learning purposes.
Our intent is to help you understand all the pieces and how to assemble them.


what is a tangible cost

Tangible cost: a cost associated with an information system that can be measured in dollars and with certainty


what are IS development tangible costs

hardware, labor, operational, employee training etc