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1

Conditional Probability

P(B|A) = "the probability of B, given A"

2

Expected Value

(amount 1)(prob 1)+(amount 2)(prob 2)+etc..

3

Multiplication Rule

The probability that 2 events will occur in sequence is
- P(A)•P(B|A)

For independent events it is
- P(A)•P(B)

4

Observational Study

Gather data by watching or looking at records of what's already happened. No influence or manipulation.

5

Sample Survey

Used to take information from a small group and meant to represent the entire population. Can bias easily.

6

Finding Probability

P(E)=

number of outcomes in event E
__________________________________________

number of outcomes in sample space

7

Complementary Events

Outcomes that are not included in Event E

E'

8

Range of Probabilities Rule

0

9

Experiment

To change a variable within a controlled environment and measure the changes.

10

Permutations

nPr

11

Census

Measurements are taken from the entire population. Least popular. Key words: whole, everyone, entire.

12

Mutually Exclusive

P(A or B)= P(A)+P(B)

13

Outcome

The result of a single trial in a probability experiment.

14

Event

Consists of one or more outcomes and is a subset of the sample space.

15

Sample Space

The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment.

16

Non-Mutually Exclusive

P(A or B)= P(A)+P(B)–P(A and B)

17

Combinations

nCr

18

Randomization

Something is random if there is a equal chance of being chosen, and people are chosen without regard to characteristics. If not, results are biased.

19

Data Collection

To make general conclusions about a populations based on a sample.

20

Probability Distributions

0

21

Probability Experiment

An action, or trial, through which specific results are obtained.