Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Unit 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What can high blood pressure cause?

A

Blood vessels to burst leading to a stroke

2
Q

What does low blood pressure cause?

A

Dizziness and fainting

3
Q

Define fitness and health

A

Fitness-ability to do physical exercise

Health-free from disease

4
Q

What are the 4 (S) of fitness

A

Speed
Suppleness
Strength
Stamina

5
Q

How does smoking increase blood pressure?

A

CO(carbon monoxide) cause blood to carry less O2 as it combines with haemoglobin

Nicotine directly increases it

6
Q

How is heart disease caused?

A

Restricted blood flow to the heart muscles as the narrowing of arteries caused by plague block the coronary arteries.

7
Q

What are carbohydrates?

A

Simple sugars such as glucose

8
Q

What are proteins made up of?

A

Amino acids

9
Q

What are fats made up of?

A

Glycerol

10
Q

Whats a first class protein?

A

They contain all the essential amino acids that cannot be made in the human body

11
Q

Whats a second class protein?

A

They don’t contain all the essential amino acids

12
Q

What does a lack of protein cause?

A

Kwashiokor

13
Q

What causes malaria?

A

A protozoan which feeds on humans red blood cells

14
Q

What are vectors?

A

Things that carry the disease but are not affected

15
Q

What is a parasite?

A

An organisum that feeds on another

16
Q

How can you reduce the risk of cancer?

A

Changes in diet
Not smoking
Using uv sun protection

17
Q

What is a pathogen?

A

A disease causing organism that produce toxins that damage body cells

18
Q

What do antibodies do?

A

(Lock and key)

Lock onto antigens to kill the pathogen

19
Q

What is active immunity?

A

White blood cells producing antibodies

20
Q

Placebo definition

A

Harmless pill used to help find the effect of new drugs

21
Q

What part of the eye refracts light?

A

Cornea and lens

22
Q

What does the retina contain?

A

Light receptors

23
Q

What is binocular vision

A

Judges distance

24
Q

What does the pupil do?

A

Allows light rays to enter the eye

25
Q

What happens to the eye in short sighted vision?

A

Eye is too long and too round

26
Q

What are nerve cells called?

A

Neurones

27
Q

Where do nerve impulses pass along?

A

The axon

28
Q

What is the order of a reflex action?

A

Stimulus—-receptor—-sensory neurone—-central nervous system—-motor neurone—-effector—-response

29
Q

Whats the gap between a neurone called?

A

Synapse, where impulses diffuse between

30
Q

What are the 5 types of drugs?

A
Depressants
Pain killers
Stimulants
Performance enhancers
Hallucinogens
31
Q

What are the effects of smoking?

A

The chemicals stop the cilia moving

Resulting in a ‘smokers cough’ to removed the trapped dust/particles stuck in the cilia

32
Q

What is homeostasis?

A

Keeping a constant internal environment

Whilst balancing bodily inputs and outputs

33
Q

What does homeostasis control?

A

Temperature
Carbon dioxide
Water

34
Q

Whats the bodies optimum temp?

A

37’c linked to the optimum temp of enzymes

35
Q

What can high temp cause?

A

Heat stroke

Dehydration

36
Q

What can very low temp cause?

A

Hypothermia

37
Q

What is vasoconstriction?

A

The narrowing of blood vessels to warm up the body as it reduces heat loss

38
Q

What is vasodilation?

A

The widening of blood vessels to cool down the body

39
Q

What controls blood sugar levels?

A

A hormone called insulin

40
Q

What is type 1 diabetes?

A

Pancreas not producing any insulin

41
Q

What is type 2 diabetes?

A

Body producing too little insulin or not reacting to it.

42
Q

What does insulin do?

A

Converts excess glucose into glycogen stored in the liver

43
Q

What is phototropism?

A

Growth towards light

44
Q

What is geotropism?

A

Growth towards gravity

45
Q

Whats the plant hormone called? And whats it needed for?

A

Auxin, needed for plant growth

46
Q

Where do you find auxin in a plant?

A

The tip

47
Q

Whats an allele?

A

A different version of the same gene

48
Q

What can an allele have?

A

A dominant and recessive characteristic

49
Q

How many chromosome pairs are they?

A

23 pairs (46 in total)

50
Q

What is XX?

What is XY?

A

XX is female

XY is male

51
Q

What causes genetic variation?

A

Mutations
Rearrangements of genes during the formation of gametes
Fertilisation resulting in a zygote of alleles from both parents

52
Q

What is a monohybrid cross?

A

One pair of chromosomes controlled by a single gene

53
Q

Whats a homozygous?

Whats a heterozygous?

A

Identical alleles

Different alleles

54
Q

Whats a genotype?

Whats a phenotype?

A

Geno- genetic makeup

Pheno- expressed alleles

55
Q

What is systolic//diastolic pressure?

A

Systolic-max pressure

Diastolic-pressure between heart beats