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1

a subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and the treatment and prevention of illness

Health Psychology

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Belief that every thought, mood and urge is a biological event. Includes Evolutionary Perspective (adaptation and reproduction) and Life-Course Perspective (how age relates to health)

Biological context of health psychology

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Looks at coping with stressful experiences, attitude

Psychological context of health psychology

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Looks at ways we think about, influence and relate to each other and environment

Social context of Health psych

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A model of health psychology where 3 contexts are used.

Biopsychosocial model

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A questioning approach that doesn't blindly accept conclusions, examines assumptions and evaluates evidence

Critical thinking

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A form of faulty reasoning in which our expectations prevent us from seeing alternative answers for observations

Belief Bias

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Principles of Health Psychology

1. To study the cause of specific diseases (etiology) 2. promote health. 3. prevent and treat illness. 4. promote public health policy and improve health care system.

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Epidemiology

Study of frequency, distribution and causes of a disease or other health outcome in a pop.

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Morbidity

# of infections

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Mortality

# of deaths

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Incidence

total # of new cases

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Prevalence

total # of cases

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Descriptive studies: Strengths

Indepth information about one person; leads to new hypothesis; detects naturally occurring relationships among variables

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Descriptive studies: Weaknesses

No direct control over variables; subject to bias of observer; single cases are misleading;no casuality; correlation may mask extraneous variables

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Experimental Studies: Strengths

High degree of control; random assignment

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Experimental studies: Weaknesses

Artificial limits generalizability; ethics play a role

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Epidemiological Studies; Strengths

Easy to replicate; good generalizability

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Epidemiological studies: Weaknesses

Variables must be controlled by selection than direct manipulation; time-consuming; expensive

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Meta Analysis: Strengths

Helps make sense of conflicting reports; replicating

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Meta Analysis: Weaknesses

Potential bias since selecting studies

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The scientific method

Set up an expeirment, observe, analyze and see if it fits with hypothesis (repeat)

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On a neuron: information enters through____ information exits through____

dendrites; axons

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Acetylcholine

muscle action, learning and memory

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Dopamine

moving, learning, attention and emotion

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Serotonin

mood, hunger, sleep, arousal

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Norepinephrine

alertness and arousal

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Glutamate

excitatory

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GABA

inhibitory

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Peripheral Nervous System Breakdown

Somatic, Autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic)

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Stressor

events that trigger stress reaction (lack of homeostasis)

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Stress

When internal resources are not sufficient to meet demands of external event

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Walter Cannon

coined "fight or flight" and added homeostasis concept

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Thalamus

Major relay center of the brain

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Frontal lobe/cerebral cortex

important for stress response

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Limbic System consists of ____, _____, _______

amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus

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SAM

Is fast; hypothalamus signals anterior pituitary gland to release ACTH which signals adrenal medulla to release epinephrine

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HPA

slow; hypothalamus signals anterior pituitary gland to release ACTH which causes adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Too much cortisol causes cortisol to bind to glucocortisoid receptors on the hippocampus which turns hypothalamus off.

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Subfield of psych that emphasizes the interaction of psychological, neuroendocrine and immunological processes in stress and illness

Psychoneuroimmunology

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Hans Selye created _______. It means that:

General Adaptation Syndrome; that there is 3 stages to stress resistance. An alarm stage, a resistance stage and exhaustion stage. Stree response stays the same with any individual.

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Mason Lazarus created ______. It states that

Cognitive Appraisal Theory; when responding to stress, individuals first go through primary appraisal: whether this affects me? then go through secondary appraisal: can I cope with this? If it does it is a challenge. If not, it is a threat.

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Direct Effect Hypothesis

Immunosuppression is natural response to stress

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Indirect Effect Hypothesis

Stress leads to maladaptive behaviors which lead to immunosuppression

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Cohen et al (1991)

Gave patients rhinovirus and found that as stress INCREASED, ppl getting cold INCREASED.

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Volkman and Weekes(2006)

During exam week, upper respiratory tract symptoms INCREASED. Conclusion: Stressful situations cause sickness.
and those with low basal sIgA had a HIGHER increase of URT. Conclusion: If the immune system is already weak, ppl become more sick in stressful situations.

Those with higher basal cortisol had a HIGHER INCREASE in URT symptoms. Conclusion: if already stressed, ppl have INCREASED SICKNESS in stressful situations.

Discovered that individuals differ in stress responses

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Cohen et al (2003)

Ppl with a positive emotional style had LESS colds. Conclusion: optimism--> less stress related illness.

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Dickerson And Kerneny

Meta analysis. Used TSST experiment: white coats judging you, to find that social evaluation was threatful. THreat had a higher coritosl than challenge. Conclusion: Threat is MORE STRESSFUL.

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Epigenetics

study of changes caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of DNA.

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Epigenome

compounds that tell genome what to do. Attached to DNA but not part of. Ex. Methylation

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Diathesis-stress model

Diathesis: predisposition to develop disorder; stress: caused by trauma, conflict --> development of disorder

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"Air"

Found that 1) air pollution led to epigenetic changes to Foxp3 to turn OFF. This led to less T-regulatory cells, causing more T helper cells to proliferate and trigger immune response. 2) second hand smoke led to methylation of interferon gamma to turn OFF. This led to increase of Th2 which lead to allergies

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Weaver et al (2007)

1. found that increase of maternal behavior leads to children having LOWER responses to stress. Exon1 GR promoter is methylated at birth. Licking=demethylation. GR INCREASE so hippocampus decreases cortisol making due to - feedback loop in HPA.
2. crossfoster showed not genetic.
3. feeded trichostatin A to babies and this REMOVES methyl groups. LESS STRESS.

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Meaney and Szyf

1.Attentive mothers had less methylated pups.
2. attentive mothers with pups from inattentive mothers had less methylated. not genetic.
3. trichostatin A removes methylated groups stress response decreased.

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Doan

1. Psychological control is more prevalent in China. Cortisol is higher in China.
2.Psychological control is related to higher cortisol. Not culture.
3. Different parenting style is more significant.


1. THose with higher maternal responsiveness had no change in working memory in low and higher Allostatic load.
2. Those with low maternal responsiveness had low working memory in high AL.

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Allostasis

process of achieving stability

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Allostatic load

Accumulated damage that body experiences due to repeated cycles of allostasis.

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Ways ppl deal with stressful situations and includes attempts to preserve metnal and physical health

Coping

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Approach coping

a type of coping that involves lconfront a stressor head-on by making an active effort to resolve the problem.

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Avoidant coping

using defensive methods to avoid the problem.

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Lazarus thought of 2 ways of coping ______ and _______

Emotion-focused coping: Cognitive or behavioral efforts to reduce the distress; problem-focused coping: efforts to overcome the source of a problem.

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A coping model

Biopsychosocial coping model

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Includes regulatory control increasing as a possible reason, along with hardiness

Biological influences to coping

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Hardiness

1. committment: see the world as interesting and meaningful. 2. control: belief in one's ability to control events. 3. challenge: Seeing change as exciting opportunities.

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Includes active coping meachnisms, optimism and personal control

psychological influences of biospychsocial coping model

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Having helpful support, gratitude, pets, humor

social influences of biopsychosocial coping model

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Coan et al.

Found that mothers that held someone's hand, led to lower arousal to electric shock. Holding SO's hand led to decrease in uncomfortableness.
Conclusion: Social support decrease in stress.

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Taylor et al.

Tend and befriend: when stressed, ppl look for social contact. If received, stress decreases. If not, stress increased.; oxytocin= BAD RELATIONSHIP=INCREASED MATERNAL BEHAVIOR=LESS STRESS.

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Pennebaker

Writng=less health visits