Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (68):
a subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and the treatment and prevention of illness
Belief that every thought, mood and urge is a biological event. Includes Evolutionary Perspective (adaptation and reproduction) and Life-Course Perspective (how age relates to health)
Biological context of health psychology
Looks at coping with stressful experiences, attitude
Psychological context of health psychology
Looks at ways we think about, influence and relate to each other and environment
Social context of Health psych
A model of health psychology where 3 contexts are used.
A questioning approach that doesn't blindly accept conclusions, examines assumptions and evaluates evidence
A form of faulty reasoning in which our expectations prevent us from seeing alternative answers for observations
Principles of Health Psychology
1. To study the cause of specific diseases (etiology) 2. promote health. 3. prevent and treat illness. 4. promote public health policy and improve health care system.
Study of frequency, distribution and causes of a disease or other health outcome in a pop.
# of infections
# of deaths
total # of new cases
total # of cases
Descriptive studies: Strengths
Indepth information about one person; leads to new hypothesis; detects naturally occurring relationships among variables
Descriptive studies: Weaknesses
No direct control over variables; subject to bias of observer; single cases are misleading;no casuality; correlation may mask extraneous variables
Experimental Studies: Strengths
High degree of control; random assignment
Experimental studies: Weaknesses
Artificial limits generalizability; ethics play a role
Epidemiological Studies; Strengths
Easy to replicate; good generalizability
Epidemiological studies: Weaknesses
Variables must be controlled by selection than direct manipulation; time-consuming; expensive
Meta Analysis: Strengths
Helps make sense of conflicting reports; replicating
Meta Analysis: Weaknesses
Potential bias since selecting studies
The scientific method
Set up an expeirment, observe, analyze and see if it fits with hypothesis (repeat)
On a neuron: information enters through____ information exits through____
muscle action, learning and memory
moving, learning, attention and emotion
mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
alertness and arousal
Peripheral Nervous System Breakdown
Somatic, Autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
events that trigger stress reaction (lack of homeostasis)
When internal resources are not sufficient to meet demands of external event
coined "fight or flight" and added homeostasis concept
Major relay center of the brain
Frontal lobe/cerebral cortex
important for stress response
Limbic System consists of ____, _____, _______
amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus
Is fast; hypothalamus signals anterior pituitary gland to release ACTH which signals adrenal medulla to release epinephrine
slow; hypothalamus signals anterior pituitary gland to release ACTH which causes adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Too much cortisol causes cortisol to bind to glucocortisoid receptors on the hippocampus which turns hypothalamus off.
Subfield of psych that emphasizes the interaction of psychological, neuroendocrine and immunological processes in stress and illness
Hans Selye created _______. It means that:
General Adaptation Syndrome; that there is 3 stages to stress resistance. An alarm stage, a resistance stage and exhaustion stage. Stree response stays the same with any individual.
Mason Lazarus created ______. It states that
Cognitive Appraisal Theory; when responding to stress, individuals first go through primary appraisal: whether this affects me? then go through secondary appraisal: can I cope with this? If it does it is a challenge. If not, it is a threat.
Direct Effect Hypothesis
Immunosuppression is natural response to stress
Indirect Effect Hypothesis
Stress leads to maladaptive behaviors which lead to immunosuppression
Cohen et al (1991)
Gave patients rhinovirus and found that as stress INCREASED, ppl getting cold INCREASED.
Volkman and Weekes(2006)
During exam week, upper respiratory tract symptoms INCREASED. Conclusion: Stressful situations cause sickness.
and those with low basal sIgA had a HIGHER increase of URT. Conclusion: If the immune system is already weak, ppl become more sick in stressful situations.
Those with higher basal cortisol had a HIGHER INCREASE in URT symptoms. Conclusion: if already stressed, ppl have INCREASED SICKNESS in stressful situations.
Discovered that individuals differ in stress responses
Cohen et al (2003)
Ppl with a positive emotional style had LESS colds. Conclusion: optimism--> less stress related illness.
Dickerson And Kerneny
Meta analysis. Used TSST experiment: white coats judging you, to find that social evaluation was threatful. THreat had a higher coritosl than challenge. Conclusion: Threat is MORE STRESSFUL.
study of changes caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of DNA.
compounds that tell genome what to do. Attached to DNA but not part of. Ex. Methylation
Diathesis: predisposition to develop disorder; stress: caused by trauma, conflict --> development of disorder
Found that 1) air pollution led to epigenetic changes to Foxp3 to turn OFF. This led to less T-regulatory cells, causing more T helper cells to proliferate and trigger immune response. 2) second hand smoke led to methylation of interferon gamma to turn OFF. This led to increase of Th2 which lead to allergies
Weaver et al (2007)
1. found that increase of maternal behavior leads to children having LOWER responses to stress. Exon1 GR promoter is methylated at birth. Licking=demethylation. GR INCREASE so hippocampus decreases cortisol making due to - feedback loop in HPA.
2. crossfoster showed not genetic.
3. feeded trichostatin A to babies and this REMOVES methyl groups. LESS STRESS.
Meaney and Szyf
1.Attentive mothers had less methylated pups.
2. attentive mothers with pups from inattentive mothers had less methylated. not genetic.
3. trichostatin A removes methylated groups stress response decreased.
1. Psychological control is more prevalent in China. Cortisol is higher in China.
2.Psychological control is related to higher cortisol. Not culture.
3. Different parenting style is more significant.
1. THose with higher maternal responsiveness had no change in working memory in low and higher Allostatic load.
2. Those with low maternal responsiveness had low working memory in high AL.
process of achieving stability
Accumulated damage that body experiences due to repeated cycles of allostasis.
Ways ppl deal with stressful situations and includes attempts to preserve metnal and physical health
a type of coping that involves lconfront a stressor head-on by making an active effort to resolve the problem.
using defensive methods to avoid the problem.
Lazarus thought of 2 ways of coping ______ and _______
Emotion-focused coping: Cognitive or behavioral efforts to reduce the distress; problem-focused coping: efforts to overcome the source of a problem.
A coping model
Biopsychosocial coping model
Includes regulatory control increasing as a possible reason, along with hardiness
Biological influences to coping
1. committment: see the world as interesting and meaningful. 2. control: belief in one's ability to control events. 3. challenge: Seeing change as exciting opportunities.
Includes active coping meachnisms, optimism and personal control
psychological influences of biospychsocial coping model
Having helpful support, gratitude, pets, humor
social influences of biopsychosocial coping model
Coan et al.
Found that mothers that held someone's hand, led to lower arousal to electric shock. Holding SO's hand led to decrease in uncomfortableness.
Conclusion: Social support decrease in stress.
Taylor et al.
Tend and befriend: when stressed, ppl look for social contact. If received, stress decreases. If not, stress increased.; oxytocin= BAD RELATIONSHIP=INCREASED MATERNAL BEHAVIOR=LESS STRESS.