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1

What is social development?

A theory by Erikson which teaches good behaviour and how to get along.

2

What is emotional development?

A theory by Freud which teaches what emotions are felt, how to express emotions and self-esteem.

3

What is intellectual development?

A theory by Kohlberg learning about attention spans, curiosity, memory, perception, reasoning and problem solving.

4

What does physical development consist of?

Body growth, size, proportion, motor skills and coordination.

5

What are the 5 characteristics of development?

Physical growth, social development, emotional development, moral development and intellectual development.

6

What are the 7 factors affecting human growth?

Survival factors/needs, environmental factors, nutrition, socialization, puberty, media and school.

7

What are the three temperaments of children?

Sensitive, placid (happy, easy going) and aggressive.

8

What are the real 5 characteristics of human development?

1. Development in human beings in similar all over the world.
2. Development is sequential and builds on earlier development.
3. Development is individualized.
4. Development is interrelated.
5. Development is continuous throughout life.

9

What is human growth and development?

Human development is how people develop on physical, social, emotional, intellectual, psychological and moral levels. This study attempts to promote a better understanding of life stages and helps us to understand how and why people think and act the way they do.

10

What did Sigmund Freud do?

Came up with the first comprehensive theory of personality.

11

Define ID.

What makes us feel good. Based off of the pleasure principle.

12

Define ego.

Right versus wrong.

13

Define superego.

The ideal/correct thing to do.

14

How many defense mechanisms does Freud have?

9.

15

What are the 9 defense mechanisms?

Denial, Repression, Displacement, Projection, Reaction Formation, Regression, Rationalization, Sublimation and Compensation.

16

Define denial.

Refusing to perceive something. Protecting oneself from reality.

17

Define repression.

Unconsciously preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering awareness.

18

Define displacement.

Substitute a different target for impulses when the original would be dangerous or unacceptable.

19

Define projection.

Attributing to one's own feelings, shortcomings or unacceptable impulses on others.

20

Define reaction formation.

Preventing dangerous impulses from being expressed in behaviour by exaggerating opposite behaviour.

21

Define regression.

Retreating to an earlier level of development or to earlier, less demanding habits or situations.

22

Define rationalization.

Justifying your behaviour by giving reasonable and "rational" but false, reasons for it.

23

Define sublimation.

Working off unmet desires, or unacceptable impulses, in activities that are construction.

24

Define compensation.

Counteracting real or imagined weaknesses by emphasizing desirable traits or seeking to excel in the area of weakness.

25

What is the oral sensory stage?

A stage in Eriksons theory where a child is 0-1 years old. The conflict is trust vs. mistrust. The most important event is feeding. The stage leads to hope.

26

What did Lawrence Kohlberg study?

Stages of moral reasoning.

27

What are the levels of moral reasoning?

1. Pre-Conventional Morality
2. Conventional Morality
3. Post-Conventional Morality

28

What are the stages of moral reasoning?

1. Obedience
2. Self-Interest
3. Conformity
4. Law and Order
5. Human Rights
6. Universal Human Ethics

29

What did Piaget study?

He studied cognitive development.

30

What are the 4 stages of Piaget's theory?

Sensorimotor (0-2) years
-gain knowledge through senses and motor movements
-object permanence (exists when not around)
-repeat actions
Preoperational (2-7) years
-engage in symbolic play (broom = horse)
-do not understand discrete logic
Concrete Operational (7-11) years
-think more logically
-have hypothetical difficulty
-can not understand deductive logic
Formal Operational (adolescence-adulthood)
-thinking is advanced