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1

An Isolated system exchanges

No matter or energy, they also do not exist naturally

2

In a closed system

Everything is recycled

3

A closed system exchanges

Only energy can move within the system and no matter

4

Boundary

A boundary is something that separates a system from its surroundings

5

Transfers occur

When energy or matter flows and changes location, but not state

6

An open system exchanges

Both matter and energy can move as inputs or outputs

7

Ecosystems are

open systems that exchange matter and energy with their environment

8

Transformations occur

When energy or matter flows and changes its state (chemical nature, state, energy)

9

1st law of thermodynamics

Principle of conservation (no energy lost or gained)

10

Strengths of models

Easier to work with than reality, Can be used to predict the effect of a change of input, Can be applied to other similar situations, Helps observe patterns on a much smaller scale, Can be used to visualise really small things

11

Weaknesses of models

Accuracy can be argued as it is only a simplified version of the model, If the assumptions we make are wrong, the model will then be wrong, Predictions may be inaccurate due to the argument in the first point

12

What is feedback?

The return of part of the output of a system as an input, so as to affect succeeding outputs

13

The 2nd law of thermodynamics

- "the total entropy of an isolated system always increases over time."
- when two systems are combined the sum of their entropies will not be more than their final combined entropy
- the second law of thermodynamics "places constraints" on the transfer of heat energy and efficiencies of heat engines
- when two systems come together, they will reach a balance

14

Sustainability

The use and management of resources that allows for full natural replacement of the resources exploited and full recovery of the ecosystems affected by their extraction and use

15

Millenium ecosystem experiment

Funded by the UN in 2001, The MEA is a research experiment with the focus on the way in which ecosystems have changed over the last decades and predicts the changes that will occur.

16

Ecological overshoot

An ecological overshoot is when humanity has ‘overshot’ its sustainable level of resource exploitation

17

Natural income

The produce/goods/services created by the environment to provide humans in order to produce natural capital

18

Sustainable development

Sustainable development has been defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

19

Entropy

Energy that is not used

20

Herbivores

Animals

21

3rd law of thermodynamics

Entropy of a system approaches a constant as temperature approaches 0

22

What is an environmental impact assessment ?

A report which discusses environmental factors considering a range of parties while analysing a potential project and predicting the ultimate environmental impacts as a result of the project

23

Carnivores

Humans

24

Natural capital

A term used for natural resources that can produce a sustainable natural income of goods or services

25

EIA

Environmental impact assesment

26

Strategic environmental assessment (SEAs)

Measure social and environmental costs of a development - this may be subjective on an inaccurate prediction

27

EIA objectives:

To explain what an EIA is ,Identification of the environmental impacts, how these could be developed, Put forward a plan to manage the surrounding environment, Make clients aware of any urgent problems that must be aware of
description of the pre-project environment, A description of the process of the project taking place throughout construction elements and the many processes it will insure once completed, Display a list of environmental laws that may need consideration

28

Weaknesses of EIAs

Different countries have different standards - makes each assessment hard to compare by country, no boundaries to determine how detailed the assessments have to be
It is difficult to consider every individual (some might be missed)

29

What does an EIA include

The background and reasoning for the project,
The overall effects of the environment as a result of the , project being carried out, Outlines a range of policies, Summarises causes and solutions, Suggests an action plan to be carried out before during and after proposed adaptations/construction

30

When were EIAs introduced?

They were introduced by the US government when the national environment policy act was passed - since then may other countries are now using

31

Ecological footprints

Are models used to estimate the demands that the human population places on the environment

32

Strengths of EIAs

They are able to offer insight into the realistic effects that a project may have
They show both positives and negatives and allow for options
Good way to plan ahead and understand the potential impacts on many different groups (government, environment, humans)

33

EIA tasks

Identification of impacts (scoping)
Predicting the scale of potential impacts
Limiting the effect of impacts to acceptable limits (mitigation)
A non technical summary for those who will not understand the terms of the official report

34

Why are EIAs used?

Creates a plan for a project to be carried out yet to protect the environmental area around it, They make sure that it is taking place in a practical location, and look at how things can be ru an eco-friendly way, they look at the technological aspects of the potential project and if they have an overall impact on the environment, They provide a report addressing the ways that a plan could be changed to have impacts become more environmentally friendly, Notes how the project will impact others within the area. EG: local residents, and businesses

35

What could an EIA be used for?

Roadworks
Airport and port developments
Power stations
Building dams
Large scale housing
Quarrying

36

Your environmental worldview is formed by:

Experiences
Background
Education
Society
Culture
Views/Beliefs

37

Ecological footprint

are models used to estimate the demands that the human population places on the environment

38

An ecocentric worldview....

places ecology and nature as central to humanity

39

Characteristics of an ecocentric world view

Less materialistic
Greater self-sufficiency of societies
Life centred
Respects the rights of nature and the dependence of humans on nature
Holistic view of life which is earth centred
Extreme ecocentrists are deep ecologists

40

An anthropocentric world view....

believes that humans must sustainably manage the global system

41

Characteristics of an anthropocentric world view

For the use of taxes, environmental regulations, and legislations, is more human centred, Believes humans are not dependent upon nature but nature is there to benefit humankind

42

Technocentric worldview....

believe that the global technological developments will provide solutions to the world’s environmental issues

43

The characteristics of a technocentric world view

Environmental managers are technocentrics, Extreme technocentrics are also known as cornucopians

44

Pollution

Something that has a negative effect on the human environment or ecosystem. Examples of pollution include: light pollution, sound pollution, energy pollution, heat pollution, and air pollution.

45

Organic Pollution

Organic pollution, contains carbon, tends to be living and has the same negative effect on the environment examples include: Invasive species, sewage, soil erosion, the Kudzu

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Non organic pollution

This includes plastics or heavy metals

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Point source pollution

A point source describes a source of pollution that is easy to locate and manage

48

Non point source pollution

When pollution is harder to stop as it may be caused by multiple sources

49

Invasive species

A being that is unnatural to an ecosystem and ends up likely to harm or harming the environment

50

Pollutants can be released in the form of:

- Matter (gases, liquids, solids) organic (contains carbon atoms) or inorganic
- Energy (sound, light heat)
- Living organisms (invasive species or biological agents)

51

Primary pollutants

Active on emission (eg: carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels) which causes headaches and fatigue and can kill

52

Secondary pollutants

undergoing physical or chemical changes (eg sulphuric acid forms when sulphur trioxide reacts with water), as humans have been on earth we have polluted to a greater or lesser extent

53

POPs (Persistent organic pollutants)

Man made pesticides s

54

POP characteristics

Not soluble in water
High molecular weight
Highly soluble in fats and liquids (can pass through cell membranes)
Halogenated molecules, often with chloride

55

Acute pollution

is when large amounts of a pollutant are released causing mass harm

56

Chronic pollution

results from the long term release of a pollutant but in small amounts, it is serious because:
It is often undetected for a significant amount of time
It is more difficult to clean up
It spreads widely

57

Air pollution

is often chronic causing non-specific respiratory diseases

58

Pollution can be managed in 3 main ways

By changing the human activity which produces it
By regulating or preventing the release of the pollutant
By working to clean up or resolve damaged ecosystems

59

Indirect measurements

Record changes in an abiotic or biotic factor which are the result of pollutants

60

Indirect measurements of pollutants include:

Measuring abiotic factors that change (eg: the oxygen content of water)
Recording the presence or absence of indicator species are species that are only found if the conditions are polluted (maggot in water) or unpolluted (leads lichens on trees)

61

Chronic pollution results

from the long term release of a pollutant but in small amounts

62

Chronic pollution is highly serious because

It is often undetected for a significant amount of time
It is more difficult to clean up
It spreads widely

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POPs.... (Persistent organic pollutants)

break down and remain in the environment for a long time causing potential effects on it

64

When pollution was a lot lower

the environment could cope with these pollutants

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Pollution is

an inevitable side effect of the economic development that gives humans a better standard of living than what we had

66

Pollution has

Increased since the industrial revolution

67

What is the Gaia hypothesis?

That the earth is a plant sized organism and the atmosphere is its organ that regulates it and connect all its parts

68

Direction and monitoring of air pollution

Direct measurements record the amount of a pollutant in water, air or soil

69

Who was involved in the environmental movement

Influential individuals, independent pressure groups, businesses, governments, intergovernmental bodies

70

Influential individuals

Individuals that often use media publications to raise issues and/or start debate

71

Biodegradable pollutants

Do not persist in the environment or break down quickly
They may be broken down by decomposed organisms or physical processes (light or heat)
Examples: soap, plastic bags, glyphosate (used to kill weeds, and is degraded and broken down by soil organisms

72

Independent pressure groups

IPGs use awareness campaigns to reflect change. They influence the public who then influence the government, businesses, and organisations. They are often called Non government organisations or NGOs

73

Corporate businesses (Including multinational or transnational coperations)

They are involved as they are supplying consumer demand, using resources and creating environmental impact.

74

Government

Make policy decisions including environmental ones (eg: permission for land use), apply laws/legislations to manage the country, meet with other governments to consider international agreements

75

Intergovernmental bodies

(UN) IGs have recelo become influential by holding earth summits to bring together governments, NGOs, and other operations to consider environmental and world development

76

The environmental movement originated in

The 1960s

77

What is an environmental value system? (EVS)

An EVS is a worldview or paradigm that shapes the way and individual or group of people perceive and evaluate environmental issues.

78

Cornucopians believe....

That the world has infinite resources to benefit humanity and that we will be able to solve any problem with our inventiveness and technology

79

Direct measurements of water + soil pollution include

Nitrates or phosphates
Amount of organic matter or bacteria
Heavy metal concentrations

80

Environmental managers believe....

The world is a garden that needs tending to - (The stewardship worldview) how we have an ethical duty to protect and nurture the earth, and the government need to protect from human exploitation of resources

81

The Ecocentric worldview....

Believes that the other views are too simple when we are unaware of how every element of the planet works. "We shall either fall of the treadmill of growth or find it stops beneath us"

82

Biocentrics believe that....

We are just one species, no more important than others on the planet

83

Summary of the ecocentric view:

Earth is here for all species, resources are limited, we should manage growth so it's only beneficial, we must work with the earth, we need earth more than it needs us

84

Deep ecologists

Place more value on nature than humanity

85

A system can be....

Living or non living

86

What is the biosphere

A fragile skin on planet earth including the air (atmosphere), rocks (lithosphere), and water (hydrosphere)

87

What is a system?

A set of inter-related parts working together to make a complex whole

88

Both inputs and outputs....

Can be stored within the ecosystem

89

Closed systems are....

Extremely rare in nature, and mostly constructed for experimental purposes

90

Isolated systems....

Do not exist naturally although it is possible to think of the entire universe as an isolated system

91

Efficiency

The work or output produced by a process divided by the amount of energy consumed being the input to the process

92

Negative feedback loops

When stabilising occurs and when the output of a process reverses the operation of the same process to reduce change

93

Steady state equilibrium

A characteristic of open systems where there are continuous inputs/outputs of energy and matter but the system remains in a constant state

94

Equilibrium

The tendency if a system to return to its original state following a disturbance

95

Entropy

A measure of the amount of disorder in a system

96

A complex system has

Many feedback links, flows, and storages

97

Static equilibrium

When there is no change in state overtime. When it is disturbed, it will adopt a new equilibrium

98

In an unstable equilibrium ....

The system returns to a new equilibrium after disturbance

99

In a stable equilibrium ....

The system returns to the same equilibrium after disturbance

100

Negative feedback

Stabilises steady state equilibria

101

A positive feedback loop....

Changes a system to a new state, destabilises as they increase change

102

A negative feedback loop....

Returns to its original state, stabilises as it reduces change

103

A feedback loop is....

When information that starts a reaction may input more information starting another reaction

104

Positive feedback....

Results in an increase or decrease which Amplifies changes driving the system to a tipping point where a new equilibrium can be adopted

105

Resilience

Resilience of a system mesures how it responds as a result of a disturbance. High resilience is good, maintaining stability

106

An ecological tipping point is reached....

When an ecosystem experiences a shift to a new state in which there is significant changes to biodiversity and provided services

107

Tipping point characteristics:

Positive feedback, Long lasting changes which are hard to reverse, the threshold point can't be predicted, a fast shift in ecological state

108

What effects ecosystem resilience?

The more diverse an ecosystem, the more resilient it tends to be as there are more interactions

109

A society that supports itself by depicting essential forms of natural capital is....

An unsustainable society

110

Cost benefit analysis

measures impacts of a development or change of land use into monetary values

111

Entropy rule

The more disordered the system, the higher the entropy

112

Entropy in thermodynamics

When heat flows between systems, their entropy increases

113

In thermodynamics....

Entropy is related to heatflow

114

Entropy within systems....

Entropy is the inherent disorder of a system

115

Heat will flow....

From something hotter to something colder, not the other way around

116

Second law of thermodynamics (briefly)

In any cyclic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same