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1

Motivation

biological, emotional, cognitive (thinking), or social forces (people around you) that activate and direct behavior

2

3 Characteristics Of Motivation

1. activation- initiation or production of behavior
2.intensity- seen in the greater vigor(effort) of responding that accompanies motivated behavior
3.persistence- continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal

3

Instinct

a complex, unlearned, fixed-pattern of behavior common to all members of a species

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Drive

helps motivate an organism to satisfy a need

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Incentive

inducement or reward that serves as a motivational device for a desire action or behavior
-expectation that a particular behavior will lead to a goal
-behavior s motivated by a "pull" of external goals, such as rewards, money, taste of food, or recognition

6

Set Point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

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Homeostasis

the body monitors and maintains relatively constant levels of internal state, such as body temp., fluid level, and energy level

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Positive Incentive Value

anticipated pleasure involved in the performance of a particular behavior

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Interpersonal Engagement

emotion dimension reflecting the degree to which emotions involve other people

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Instinct Theory

Inborn behavior as motivator

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Drive-Reduction Theory

behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs
ex: food (need)-- Hunger (drive)-- eating (drive-reducing behaviors)

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Arousal Theory/ Optimum Arousal

different individuals perform better at different levels of arousal and that every individual seeks to find its optimum level
-optimal stimulation as motivator; people experience both very high levels and very low levels of arousal as being quite unpleasant

13

Achievement Motivation

desire to direct your behavior toward excelling, acceding or out performing others

14

Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs

1.Self-actualization- living to your highest potential
2.Esteem- you've acquired the skills to lead to honor and recognition; accomplishment
3. Love + Belonging- deeper more meaningful relationships
4. Safety- home sweet home, financial stability, security
5. Physiological Needs- food, water, sleep

15

Self-Determination Theory

people are driven by need to gain fulfillment and grow
3 needs:
-autonomy
-competence
-relatedness

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Self-Determination Theory 3 Needs: Autonomy

need to determine, control, and organize one's own behavior and goals so that they are in harmony with ones own interest and values

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Self-Determination Theory 3 Needs: Competence

the need to learn and master appropriately challenging tasks

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Self-Determination Theory 3 Needs: Relatedness

need to feel attached to others and experience a sense of belongingness, security, and intimacy

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Hunger: Hypothalamus

brains control center for hunger located in the hypothalamus

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Satiation

the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal

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Insulin

hormone produced by pancreas that regulates glucose levels

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CCK

hormone secreted by small intestines and enters bloodstream (hormone that goes up when you're full)

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Leptin

hormone secreted by the body's adipose (body fat) tissue
-causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger

24

Ghrelin

hormone manufactured in the stomach lining
-stimulates appetite
-blood levels of ghrelin RISE sharply BEFORE and FALL abruptly AFTER a meal

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Classical Conditioning

process behind when a stimulus elicits a response. To teach a neutral item to elicit the same response as an unconditioned response

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Operant Conditioning

learned preference (positive incentive)
-process behind when a stimulus elicits a response. To teach a neutral item to elicit the same response as an unconditioned response

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Emotion

experience of feelings that underlies behavior; activates and effects behaviors but difficult to predict behavior; ex. Fear, joy, surprise

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3 Distinct Components Of Emotion

1.Subjective experience
2.Physiological arousal
3.Behavioral/ Expressive Behavior

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Two-Factor Theory

emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the COGNITIVE LABEL that we apply to explain the arousal
ex: stimulus(bear)-- arousal(heart pounding)-- cognitive label("that is one scary bear! I'm afraid of it!") ---emotion(fear)

30

James-Lange Theory

an experience of emotion results from an awareness of our own physiological responses to the emotion
-identify emotion based on bodily response (change in body, then emotion comes)