Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

Grade 11 biology > Unit 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (50):
1

Levels of classification

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

2

Species

Group that looks alike and can breed with each other to produce viable offspring

3

Bacteria

archaebacteria (primitive) and eubacteria are found where other organisms can't survive

4

Good bacteria

Sources of antibiotics and decomposes in nutrient cycles

5

Bad bacteria

Can cause decease by growing too numerous in the host, destroys host cells and tissues by producing toxins

6

Basic bacterial shapes and clusters

Shapes: Spherical- coccus (cocci) Rod shaped- bacillus (Bacilli) spiral- sprillium (spirilla)

Clusters: diplo- 2
Strepto- chain
Staphylo- clump

7

Obligate aerobes

Require oxygen

8

Obligate anaerobes

Can't survive with oxygen

9

Facultative anaerobes

Can survive with or without oxygen

10

Viruses

Not living, can only survive inside another living cell, capsid contains nucleic acid and makes up for 95% of virus. They will only effect bacteria, only plants or only animals. They destroy the cells they infect so antibiotics are not effective but they can be prevented with vaccines

11

Bacteriophages

viruses eat bacteria and inject their DNA (have a specific host range)

12

Protists

Eukaryotic, unicellular, ancient, aquatic. Plant like: contains chlorophyll- algae Animal like: heterotrophs, moist habitats- amoeba Fungi like: Slime moulds

13

Plants versus fungi

Plants :
One nucleus per cell
Autotrophs
Starch is main storage molecule
Roots
Cellulose in cell wall
Reproduce by seed

Fungi:
Many nuclei per cell
Heterotrophs
Few or no storage molecules
No roots
Chitin in cell walls
None reproduce by seed

14

Fugi characteristics

Eukaryotic, anchored in soil, reproduction can be sexual, asexual or both

15

Fungi cell structure

Hyphae: thin ligaments that branch out and make body. Consist of long tubes of cytoplasm containing many nucleii
Compartments are called septa

16

Importance of fungi

Decomposes and recycles

17

Animal major characteristics

Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophs and most are motile. 95% are invertebrates, cells are organized into tissues and organs, can be sexual or aquatic

18

Asymmetrical

No body symmetry

19

Radial symmetry

Parts arranged around a central axis

20

Bilateral symmetry

Left and right are mirror images of each other

21

Coelomates

True body cavity, organisms are suspended by a mesentery with a hollow space

22

Psedocolemates

Have a false body cavity and two body openings

23

Acolemates

Mouth is only opening

24

Embryonic development

Germ layer, develops into various body organs

25

Porifera

Sponges (demo sponges)
Most are marine (some freshwater)
No definite shape
No tissue organization
Larvae are free swimming but adults are sessile
Hermaphrodotic

26

Cnidaria

Jellyfish (anything with stinging cells)
Most are marine
All have radial symmetry
Two definite tissue layers
Polyp: cylindrical, sessile, mouth shaped upwards and tentacles surrounding it

Medusa: free floating, umbrella shaped, mouths downwards and tentacles hanging down around it

27

Plathelminthes

Flatworms (tapeworms) Simplest animals with organs
acolemates, flattened bodies with bilateral sypetry and capitalization

28

Nematode

Round worms (hookworms) found everywhere. most are parasites, ruby bodies and bilateral symmetry , pseducoelomates, males are smaller then females

29

Annelida

Segmented worms (earth worms) collimates with bilateral symmetry. freshwater marine or terrestrial

30

Mollusca

Squid, muscles Built on a body of mantle shell and for
mantle secretes shell and involved in respiration
shell provides support protection and secures attachment for the muscle
Foot is fleshy and contains most of the viscera

31

Arthropod

Biggest and most diverse, bilaterally symmetrical, covered in tough exoskeleton. Has 5 main groups. Horseshoe crabs: most successful Arachnids: scorpions Crustaceans: aquatic, lobsters etc centipedes and millipedes

32

Echinoderm

Starfish, no body segmentation, radial symmetry, marine

33

Chordata

Hollow nerve cord on dorsal side
Notochord- rod between nerve cord and digestive track
Gill structure in pharynx
Post anal tail
Digestive tube behind mouth

34

Agnathans

Fish lacking jaws

35

Chondrichthyes

cartilaginous fish

36

Osteichthyes/ actiopterygii

bony fish

37

Amphibia

Adapted to terrestrial and aquatic environments

38

Reptalia

Descendants of amphibians

39

Aves

Birds

40

Mammalian

Have hair and mammary glands

41

Vascular plants

xylem: transports water
Phloem: transports nutrients
Can by gymnosperms (naked seeds) or angiosperms (enclosed seeds)

42

Monocots

One vein

43

Dicots

Two veins

44

Non vascular plants

No conductive tissue, no roots stem or leaves. Can't reproduce unless a film of moisture can carry gametes between plants

45

History and evolution

Ancestors of plants were all aquatic (500 million years ago) because water is needed for photosynthesis, 50 million years later moved onto barren rock for better axis to the sun. Seeds evolved to they would reproduce

46

Alternation of generations

Life cycle of plants, diploid generation produces spores and haploid generation produces gametes

47

Bryophytes

Non vascular and seedless- developed 450-400 million years ago, live in moist environments
Reproduction: haploid gametes produced by antheridium (produces sperm) and archegonium (produces eggs) diploid sporangium produces haploid spores

48

Lycophytes

Club mosses, vascular and seedless, evolved 360-300 million years ago. Moist climate
Reproduction: Haploid gametes produced from gametophyte, sporophyte diploid growing from gametophyte produces haploid spores

49

deuterostomes

Becomes the anus

50

protostomes

Becomes the mouth