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what are the three basic issues of human development

nature vs nurture
continuity vs discontinuity
universal vs context specific


what is an example of nature vs nurture

am i tall because my father is tall
am i tall because i eat a healthy diet each and everyday


genetic and hereditary influences are nature or nurture



environmental influences and experiences are nature or nurture



what is continuity vs discontinuity

whether development progresses smoothly throughout the lifespan or whether life is really a set of specific and discreet stages, each with unique characteristics


what is an example of continuity vs discontinuity

do we think the same way when we are children as when we are adults, the difference being just that we accumulate more knowledge and experience or do we think differently with age


what is universal vs context specific

whether everyone follows the same path of development or whether each person will find their own unique path


what are the five theoretical approaches (or lenses)

psychodynamic perspective
learning theory
cognitive perspective
ecological and systems approach
life-span and life course theory


what is the psychodynamic perspective

the idea that there are forces or drives within us that lead us to behave the way we do
not under our control or aware of them


who is the most famous psychodynamic theorist? who studied under him

Erik Erikson


what did Erikson propose

that the personality and social development of the individual occurs through 8 stages across the lifespan


what are the two types of the learning theory



what is behaviourism

we learn through what happens after we behave. Behaviour is followed by reinforcement or punishment


what is social-learning

that we learn by watching other people and imitating what we see
we may be selective about who we imitate depending on who we are and what we can do


what is the cognitive development theory

how we think and how we gather information about the world around us


what are the three cognitive development theories

Jean Piaget
Lawrence Kohlberg
Information Processing Theory


what is the Jean Piaget theory

suggests from early infancy we are actively engaged with the world and building our knowledge and concepts of people objects and events


what did Jean Piaget help parents and developmentilists learn

that infants are not idle, when they hold an object then put it in their mouth and then drop it they are gathering information about the size texture and functioning of the object


what is the Lawrence Kohlberg theory

he developed jean piagets theory further, focusing on moral reasoning
how we think specifically about moral dilemmas, and proposes that individuals progress through a series of stages


what is the information processing theory

takes a more technical approach and focuses on how information is taken in how it is stored and how it is later retrieved,
how we select information


what is the ecological and systems approach

we must not only observe the child but we must also understand something about his/her parents and their relationships and the community and extended family


what is the life-span and lifecourse perspective

there is plasticity in growth and development and that we cannot truly understand oneself or others without understanding what has gone on in their life
timing and combination of events and circumstances is important in the development


what are some research methods examples

self report data
representative sampling
systemic data collection


what is self report data

an example is asking friends and family for their opinions
but you have to be careful that they have not biases towards the topic


what is representative sampling

only sampling from one group of people is limiting
important to gather information from a representative sample that is broad range of people


what is systemic data collection

requires we develop and follow consistent procedures and record information accurately


what are the approaches in developmental data collection

naturalistic observations
structured observations
sampling behaviour with tasks
self reports


explain the limitations of naturalistic observation

there may be so much going on that it can be difficult to keep track, what are the ethics of this data collection, will the researcher change her behaviour based on others


what are limitations of structured observations

when we remove people from their natural environments to environments that have been set up for the study
it is hard to know whether they will react he same or if they will change based on the environment


what are some limitations of sampling behaviour

when we create tasks to stimulate the behaviour we want to study and the data collected is only as good as the stimulation created