UNIT 1 Flashcards Preview

Criminology > UNIT 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in UNIT 1 Deck (34):
1

Arson

setting fire to property with intent to cause damage

2

Burglary

entering premises with intent to commit crime

3

Cyber Crime

criminal activity carried out by use of computer systems or the internet

4

Fraud

deception of a person to make a gain

5

Hate Crime

motivated by prejudice (sexual, racial)

6

Honour Crime

killing of a family member for bringing shame

7

Rape/Sexual Assault

carried out forcibly without consent

8

Robbery

taking or attempting to take using force

9

Stalking

repeated and unwanted behaviour causing stress

10

State Crime

committed by the government

11

Street Crime

committed in a public place

12

Murder

the killing of another with intent

13

White Collar

often by the upper class, larger scale crime such as fraud and organised crime

14

Immoral Crimes

prostitution, indecent exposure, animal testing - against community morals

15

What percentage of crimes are not reported?

58%

16

Why are crimes not reported?

fear of judgment, feeling of shame, causing more drama, reliving bad experiences

17

What is an example of a personal consequence of reporting crime?

repercussions for yourself or others, shame or embarrassment (rape or domestic abuse), no victims so who cares (littering, underage drinking)

18

What is an example of a social consequence of reporting crime?

no one is bothered by it, lack of knowledge about more complicated crimes (e.g. fraud, tax evasion)

19

What are the two types of personal consequences for victims and witnesses?

1) emotional - paranoia, trauma, shame, guilt
2) Physical - threats, injuries, not leaving the house, lack of sleep

20

What are the effects of unreported crime on society?

depopulation (poverty), bad reputation, damaging stereotypes, people being afraid to go out, blaming younger generations for crime then crimes such as vandalism may be more common, feeling unsafe

21

What are the cultural consequences of unreported crime?

unreported crime can create a culture of "turning a blind eye" or being silent about crime

22

What are the legal consequences of unreported crime?

if people are unaware of crimes, they may not be seen as an issue so the law may not be updated appropriately (e.g. rape within marriage was not made illegal until 1993), people may be more likely to commit crimes if they think that they can get away with them

23

What are the pros and cons of the impact that unreported crime has on decriminalisation?

pro: it can be a good thing because some crimes can be made legal as social norms change over time (e.g. homosexuality)
con: when crimes aren't reported or recorded, the police may think that a crime is no longer a priority and is no longer common and it may therefore be decriminalised

24

What are the issues with police priorities and procedure changes?

police focus on crimes that official statistics tell them are a priority, because the statistics are based on reported and recorded crime the 'dark figure' of crime will not be represented
unreported crime may turn into unrecorded crime, for example, not many domestic violence crimes are reported so they cannot be recorded so the records of the crime decrease so it cannot be considered a serious crime

25

What are some of the factors from Galtung and Ruge's list that help to construct the news?

negativity - bad news is rated higher that positive and is considered more interesting
proximity - stories that happen closer to someones local area are always more interesting to them
currency - stories in the public eye for a long time are considered more valuable (e.g. madeline mccann)
size - the bigger the story, the bigger the impact

26

What are the two types of newspapers?

Tabloids - sensationalised, crammed headlines, emotive language (e.g. the sun, the daily mail)
Broadsheets - facts, not all info in one go, not exaggerated (e.g. telegraph)

27

Facts about Father4Justice

wanted fathers to get equal custody to mothers
aimed at single fathers
protests and publicity stunts (palace balcony dressed as superheroes)
forums, blogs, youtube, 10k followers on twitter, petitions
founded in 2001 by Matt O'Connor and still active now
new laws introduced due to raised awareness
very low costs (social media & protests, leaflets & banners)

28

Facts about Naming and Shaming

raise awareness of sex offenders
people with children but the whole public
News of the World released article with 100 names and photos of sex offenders
front page of a newspaper
Sarah's Law
decreased amount of sex offenders
could argue it was a waste of time as it was suspended

29

Facts about Operation Fortress

spread awareness of drug crimes
young people in Hampshire and IOW
go into schools to give talks on drug crimes
twitter and Facebook (105k followers), #opfortress
launched 2012, refunded in 2014
youth commission, hants constabulary, hants council
381 arrests, 76 convicted, £50k of drugs seized

30

Facts about Cuts Have Consequences

spread awareness of police budget cuts
make gov and the public aware of the consequences
adverts, polls, videos
news articles, hashtags
2011 launch, still active now
essex police and ex-policemen helped spread awareness
not been any major changes to police budget cuts

31

Facts about Stop Hate Crime

prevent different people being abused
target general public
toolkit with helpline, youtube videos
9k twitter followers, app and fb page
started 1995, 2006 helpline, 2015 LGBT helpline
parolympian ambassadors
working with the police to raise awareness

32

Facts about Think! Drink Driving

aim to reduce the no. of drink driving offences
targets people who still think its okay
ads, primetime tv, radio, twitter, #butalive, youtube, news
now been running 52yrs
lead by gov
91% of people agree its unacceptable
ad space is high costing

33

Facts about Victim Surveys

find out whether people are victims of crimes
first BCS in 1982
what crimes they've experienced, do they fear it, how they avoid it, opinion of the justice system
helps make stats more valid
ethical issues with victims reliving bad experiences

34

Facts about Offender Surveys

asks people if they've committed crimes in self reports methods
Offender Crime and Justice Survey
given to 10-25yos
friend or sibling in trouble made it more likely for someone to be criminal
may lie or not have the knowledge that the police want