Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

BEHP5013 Units 1-9 > Unit 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (46):
1

Reasons for selecting target behavior

Helps individual achieve outcomes.
Behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others.

2

Problems with behavior

Can’t Do: Skill Deficit
Problem with strength
Won’t do
Does, but only under limited circumstances
Does at the wrong time or in the wrong place

3

Adaptive behavior

Those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group

4

Mastered tasks

Tasks for which the person has met the performance criteria set for the specific task within specific conditions

5

Examples of Assessments used to identify skills to target for acquisition

VB-MAPP
Essential for Living
The MOVE Curriculum

6

Discriminative stimulus

Antecedent stimulus correlated with the availability of reinforcement. Stimulus that should, after teaching, evoke the correct or an appropriate response.

7

S^D

Discriminative Stimulus

8

Motivating Operations

Antecedent stimuli that may temporarily increase or decrease the value of a reinforcer and evoke behavior that has resulted in that reinforcer previously

9

MO

Motivating Operation

10

Prompts

Supplemenatary antecedent stimuli used to evoke a correct response in the presence of an EO or Sd that will eventually control behavior

11

Artificial consequences and schedules

Consequent stimuli or schedules of presentation that may result in the learner making the correct or an appropriate response more frequently

12

Reinforcement

The presentation or removal of a stimulus following a response, that increases (or maintains) the future frequency of that response

13

Reinforcement should be used to :

Get behavior going
Strengthen a dimension of an already acquired skill
Keep behavior going (maintenance)

14

Using positive reinforcement

Identify appetitive stimuli (potential reinforcers)
Collect baseline data
Deliver the appetitive stimulus contingent upon the target response
Continue to collect data

15

Using negative reinforcement

Identify aversive stimuli/conditions
Collect baseline data
Remove the aversive condition contingent upon the target response
Continue to collect data

16

Continuous (FR1) schedules

Consequence delivered after every response. Typically used to build or strengthen a skill

17

Variable Schedules

Consequence delivered after some number of responses, time or interval. Typically used to maintain behavior over time

18

Pattern of behavior produced on fixed schedules

Unsteady responding (pause and burst)

19

Pattern of behavior produces on variable schedules

Steady responding

20

Ratio schedules

Produce higher rates of responding

21

Fixed ratio

Very high rates of responding

22

Fixed interval

Scalloped responding

23

Variable ratio

High steady rates

24

Variable interval

Low to moderate steady rates of responding

25

Prompts may be given

Before a response begins to occur or during a response cycle to aid the performance of the behavior

26

Prompts are used

In skill acquisition programs
To evoke a low-probability behavior
To evoke a chain of behavior by prompting the first step (response priming)
To prompt behaviors incompatible with an inappropriate behavior

27

Response prompts

Operate directly on the response

28

Types of response prompts

Verbal
Modeling
Physical

29

Stimulus prompts

Operate directly on the antecedent task stimuli to cue a correct response in conjunction with the critical SD

30

Position cue

Item being taught placed closer to student

31

Movement cue

Pointing to, tapping, touching, looking at item being taught

32

Redundancy of antecedent stimuli

One or more stimulus/ response dimension paired with correct choice

33

Gestural prompt

Response prompt if the prompt operates on the response and stimulus prompt if the prompt operates on an antecedent stimulus

34

Fading

A technique used to gradually transfer stimulus control from supplementary antecedent stimuli (prompts) to naturally occurring EO’s and/or discriminative stimuli

35

Procedures for fading response prompts

Most-to-least prompts (fading out)
Least-to-most prompts (fading in)
Time delay (constant or progressive)
Graduated guidance

36

Graduated guidance

Hand-over-hand assistance and the combined use of physical prompting and fading, resulting in a systematic gradual reduction in the intensity or intrusiveness of the physical prompt

37

Singe response skill

A single movement and can be taught without breaking it down into smaller steps

38

Multiple response skill

Requires breaking down the skill into multiple steps or responses to effectively teach it

39

Differential reinforcement

Providing a reinforcer when the correct or an appropriate response occurs and not doing so when it does not occur or another response occurs

40

Prompt fading

When the correct or an appropriate response begins to occur, gradually provide less prompts and an additional level of differential reinforcement

41

Shaping

Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradual changing response classes. Reinforcement is provided when closer approximations to the correct response occurs

42

Stimulus fading

Highlighting a physical dimension (e.g., color, size, position) of a stimulus to increase the likelihood of a correct response

43

Effects of stimulus fading on problem behavior

Functions as an abolishing operation and abates problem behavior
Evokes appropriate behavior

44

Stimulus shape transformations

Use an initial stimulus shape that will prompt a correct response

45

Task analysis

Breaking down a chain into its component responses

46

Developing a TA

Perform the task or watch someone perform the task
Write down each individual step in sequence
Perform or have someone perform a task according to the steps listed