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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (52):


Which one of the following is a developmental assessment and curriculum?
d. Essential for Living




Which one of the following is a functional skills curriculum?

d. Essential for Living



Which one of the following is not a tool skill?

Attending, TACTS, basic motor Movements, remaining in one location



Most of the tool skills are in what levels of the VP – MAPP?

1 and 3

2 and 3

1 and 2

There are no tool skills in the VB – MAPP

1 and 2


Antecedent events that temporarily change the value of reinforcers are

Motivating operations


Why is it important to distinguish SD’s From Prompts?

So that you know which stimuli to fade


Reprimands can function rienforcement?

True or false



This schedule of reinforcement is typically used to establish or strengthen a behavior

Continuous schedule


Which of these is not an unwanted affect of reenforcement?

Creating a Cookie Monster

Emotional responding

Shadowing the SD

Behavior failing to occur

Behavior failing to occur


Why is demonstration on the same prompt hierarchy as full physical?

It appears that way in most textbooks

Demonstration is a less intrusive form of prompt


The story of Josh and the mud wipe your feet when you enter. Is this And example of prompting?

Yes. The natural EO for wiping your feet should be the mud. The Natural SD for wiping your feet should be the rug.. The availability of wiping your feet is correlated with the rug. The rug mix white being your feet available. Telling him to do so is an additional supplemental stimulus getting him to do it and then we faded it out


The story of Brandon and his iPod. Gesturing at your ears for him to remove the iPad, is that an example of prompting


Lips moving in front of his face should have been the natural cue to evoke the behavior


The story of Jose and his soup? Telling him he has soup all over him is that an example of prompting?


The feeling of the noodle on his chin and feeling of soup seeping through his shirt should be the EO that evokes wiping. And the site of the napkin in front of him should have been the antecedent that evokes grabbing the napkin


The story of Pat and her worksheet.

Is the teacher telling them to take out the worksheet and example of prompting



The story of JP and the PowerPoint reminder text .What is the email a prompt

Yes. There should have been other stimuli in the environment that evil completing that PowerPoint so it was a supplementary stimulus a.k.a. prompt


The story of jack the hotel room and the magnet in it.

Is sticking the magnet to the hotel room door and example of prompting?

Yes. And he faded the prompt out because if he stayed in the hotel for a number of days eventually he would not need the magnet anymore


The story of Rita and the umbrella On her briefcase.

Putting her umbrella on top of her briefcase is And example of prompting, yes or no

Yes the weather reports and the site of the clouds should have evoked getting the umbrella yeah


The story of Becky in the book on the playground.

She is getting straight A’s. Telling Becky to put the book away it’s time for a play not study is a prompt yes or no or yes


The friend made a request, there’s nothing in the natural environment that shitty book that behavior if it’s perfectly OK to study on the playground.


The story of Jhené and the open ended follow up questions. Teaching her to respond to questions with a follow-up question.

What type of prompt is this?

Modeling. Someone demonstrated exactly what she needed to do


Story of Jim and the open ended follow up questions. Telling him he should ask follow-up questions. What type of product is this



The story of Chris and the cursive writing.

Dot to dot On a paper for him to trace



The story of Jose and the napkin on the steering wheel.

Putting a napkin over the steering wheel so in the morning when you remove it you will see the empty gas tank symbol. What type of product is this?

Response or stimulus

Stimulus because it directs his site to the empty light


The story of Bob and His driving in the tap? When Bob is driving over the speed limit, tapping him on the shoulder And he slows down, what type of prompt is this.



Story of Juan and drying his hands

Started with full physical prompts. Removed hands and “ moved in and out “ , shadowing,

What type of fading is this?

Most to least

Least to most

Time delay

Graduated guidance

Graduated guidance


The story of Carole and signing milk

The natural EO was having a little cereal in the bowl with No milk. The natural SD was having somebody present who in the past has given her food items when she has asked for food items

Trainer asks what do you want, sign milk. Then handover hand help her sign milk. She is given the milk. After after a few trials of this, fade out the full physical to partial physical to no prompts. No longer lien for us if she has to be physically prompted.

What type of feeling is this?

A. Most to least

B. Least to most

C. Time delay

D. Graduated guidance

A. Most to least

Could lead to errorless learning


The story of Gwen and signing milk

She has mastered signing milk. But not always signing milk in the presence of the EO and SD

Since she is not doing it you ask her what do you want. And you wait 3 to 5 seconds.

What type of feeding is this?

a. Most to least

b Least to most

c Time delay

d. Graduated kinds

C Time delay


The story of Ted and taking out the trash. He knows how to take it out but has not been doing it. You say, what day is it in the neighborhood. He still doesn’t do it. You say to him please take out the trash. First prompt is settled. Taking out the trash is more direct.

What type of fading is this?

A. Most to least
B. Least to most
C. Time delay
D. Graduated guidance

B. Least to most


The story of Tim and the TV.

Errorless learning or not?



The story of Izzy and signing for key

They motored him through learning how to sign for Key

Errorless learning or not?



A task analysis lists the fewest possible steps for any tasks so that the individual learns the complete she quickly.

True or false



Each task analysis should be individualized based on the needs of the learner e.g., for one person, handwashing could be 12 steps. For another person it could be five steps

True or false



••The responses in the chain are taught on e at a time in e at a time in the same order as they naturally occur.
(Begin at whatever step but they have not mastered yet.)
••Prompting and fading are used to train a step
••Reinforcement is delivered at the end of the step being trained provided it is performed to criterion and provided previously trained steps are performed independently.

Forward Chaining


The responses in the chain are taught, one at a time, but beginning with the last step in the chain

Prompting and fading are used to train a step

Reinforcement is delivered at the end of the chain provided that criterion is Met on the step being trained and the rest of the steps following the training step are performed independently

Backward chaining


skill deficits, as covered in BEHP

An individual cannot do these tasks even under the most powerful contingencies or most specific and clear instructions

Acquisition tasks


Esther cannot swim even though she is about to drown and die

John cannot cook lamb even though he was given all the ingredients to make it and the recipe. And even though he was offered $100,000 if he could cook it for the party.

Examples of acquisition tasks


The trainer motors that are in her through all the untrained steps, uses graduated guidance on the step of been trained then backs off so the learner can complete the rest of the chain independently.

The trainer performs untrained steps for the learner and has them begin with the step being trained.

Example: tying a shoe. Pulling the bow tight is the step to being trained. Trainer performs all steps except for pulling the boat tight.

Two ways of doing backward chaining


The learner contacts the natural reinforcement of contingencies on every learning trial. That is, the terminal reinforcer is delivered at the end of the chain.

Advantages of backwards chaining


The story of April, her dirty hands and the burritos

First, why was April not learning to wash her hands independently? The only washed her hands once a day. They were all with providing you first met regardless of her performance. Even
Here is how I fixed it! Washed her hands continuously. Used backward chaining.

Example of backward chaining


Same as backward chaining except some steps Are skipped improved instead.

Advantage: may reduce training time

Backward chaining with Leaps ahead


Similar to forward chaining but all steps are trained in a learning trial

Many times props are faded using the least to most procedure

However, incorporating graduated guidance may be more effective than least to most prompt fading

Total task Chaining


••Research is inconclusive
••Anecdotal evidence suggest to use total task chaining mostly for learners who have already mastered many of the steps in the chain but need to learn them in sequence or he’ll get stuck in between steps.
••Total task seems to work best with learners with and imitative repertoire

For self-care, backward chaining seems to make most sense. For a shoe tying, forward chaining may work best.

Which chaining procedure to use?


The story of Chad showering. He could turn on the water independently. He could get soap. He could wash himself and put the soap away. He did not rinse. They Reminded him to rinse. They faded out the props

Which type of Chaining is this?

Total task. He had mastered most of the steps. They worked on all of the steps concurrently.


The story of Melissa and self disclosure.

Teaching Melissa to make self disclosing statements when somebody said something first.

None of the above. It was behavioral skills training


Beth making a sandwich. We have staff prepared sandwich for except for putting on the top is size. Worked on her putting on the top slice. Use a graduated guidance for putting on the piece of bread. When she messed with that, they worked on putting the mustard etc.

What type of chaining should be used.

A. Backward
B. Forward
C. Total task
D. None of these

A. Backward


Which of these is NOT a possible unwanted effectively enforcement:

A. Reinforcement delivery for undesirable behavior
B. Learn and follows the SD everywhere
C. Continuous mending forSR delivery
D. Increase in rate of target behavior

D. Increase in rate of target behavior


We call targets that a learner cannot do independently……… Tasks



Jean doesn’t tie his shoes when asked. How can his therapist determine if this is a can’t do or want to do behavioral issue?

Offer strong reinforcers for completing the task

Ask his caregivers if they have ever witnessed Jean perform this task independently


Hey task is considered mastered when it meets:

A. Hey set criteria
B. 80% correct
C. Caregiver expectations
D. A and B are the same

A. A set of criteria


The VB map is a

Developmental assessment

Developmental curriculum


Which of the following is a functional curriculum:

Essential for living
All of these

Essential for living


If we fail to teach tool skills to fluency with learners, which of the following may occur when we teach related functional skills:

A.Delay in mastering those functional skills
B. Potential EO for escape during teaching
C. Increased problem behavior
D all of these

D. All of this


In a developmental curriculum, tool skills are taught____; in a functional curriculum tool skills are taught____

Mostly in early levels; as components of functional skills