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1

the ______ is the space between the pleural cavities and occupies the center of the thoracic cavity

Mediastinum

2

The boundaries of the mediastinum
Anterior: _______
Posterior: ______
Superior: ______
Inferior: _______
Lateral: ________

The boundaries of the mediastinum
Anterior: sternum
Posterior: thoracic vertebrae
Superior: thoracic inlet
Inferior: diaphragm
Lateral: pleura

3

What are the divisions of the mediastinum and which one has subdivisions?

Superior mediastinum
Inferior mediastinum

Inferior mediastinum is further subdivided into anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum

4

What are the contents of the middle mediastinum?

Pericardium and heart, phrenic nerves and cardiac plexus, pulmonary trunk bifurcation, R and L pulmonary arteries and veins, ascending aorta, Superior and inferior vena cava, azygous vein, tracheal bifurcation, R and L bronchi, lymph nodes

5

What are the contents of superior mediastinum?

Thymidine remnants
Trachea
Esophagus
Brachiocephalic trunk
Superior vena cava
Aortic arch
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, internal thoracic vessels
vagus nerve, phrenic nerve, thoracic duct and lymph nodes

6

What is the arterial supply to the thymus?

Inferior thyroid artery
Internal thoracic artery

7

what is the venous drainage of the thymus?

Thymus vein -> brachiocephalic vein
Internal thoracic vein

8

What are the tributaries to the brachiocephalic veins?

Subclavian
Internal jugular vein
vertebral vein
Inferior thyroid vein
Internal thoracic vein
Left superior interostal vein i

9

What forms the superior vena cava?

Formed by two brachiocephalic veins

10

Where does the superior vena cava begin and end?

Begin: behind right first costal cartilage
End: behind right 3rd costal cartilage

11

What are the tributaries to the superior vena cava?

Right brachiephalic vein
Left brachiocephalic vein
Azygous vein
Pericardial veins
Mediastinal veins

12

Where does the arch of the aorta lie?

Lies behind the manubrium sterni

13

Where does the arch of the aorta begin and end?

At the level of the sternal angle (T4/T5)

14

What are the branches of the arch of the aorta from left to right?

Brachiocephalic artery (AKA innomiate)
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery

15

What are the contents of the posterior mediastinum?

Esophagus
Thoracic aorta
Azygous and hemiazygous veins
Thoracic duct, Lymph nodes
Sympathetic trunk
Vagus nerves

16

_________ is a muscular tube; 10 inches long. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium

Esophagus

17

Where does the esophagus begin at?

The level of CVI form the cricoid cartilage

18

_______ pierces the diaphragm at the level of TX

Esophagus

19

Where the esophagus joins the stomach, what epithelium is it lined with?

Simple columnar epithelium

20

Sites of Constriction of the posterior mediastinum

A the junction of the pharynx and esophagus
Where the esophagus is crossed but the arch of aorta
Where the esophagus is compressed by the left main bronchus
At the esophageal opting of the diaphragm

21

What is the arterial supply for the upper 1/3rd postieror compartment?

Inferior thyroid artery -> thyrocervical trunk-> subclavian trunk
Middle 1/3 -> thoracic aorta
Lower 1/3-> left gastric artery -> celiac trunk

22

What is the venous drainage that is associated with upper 1/3?

Inferior thyroid vein

23

What is the venous drainage of the middle 1/3 of the posterior mediastinum?

Azygous vein

24

What is the lower 1/3 of the venous drainage?

Left gastric vein-> portal vein

25

What is the lymphatic drainage of the upper 1/3 of the posterior mediastinum?

Deep cervical nodes

26

What is the lymphatic drainage of the middle 1/3 of the posterior mediastinum?

Mediastinal nodes

27

What is the lymphatic drainage of the lower 1/3 of the posterior mediastinum?

Left gastric nodes -> celiac nodes

28

What nerve innervates esophagus?

Vagus nerves

29

L _______ nerves forms anterior plexus of esophagus
R _______ nerves forms posterior plexus of esophagus

Vagus
Vagus

30

What is the sympathetic innervation of esophagus?

Cervical trunk
Thoracic trunk