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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (243)
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1

What is total body water?

Sum of all fluid found in the body

2

Approx how much total body water is in an individual?

42 liters or 60% of body weight

*variations due to body size, gender, age, obesity

3

What are the extracellular fluid compartments?

Plasma not including blood cells

Interstitial fluid

4

What is the intracellular fluid compartment?

Sum of all fluid inside cells

5

What dos the transcellular fluid compartment include?

Synovial, peritoneal, pericardial, CSF, intraocular fluid


NOTE: Even though these fluids are outside of cells, they are not included in the extracellular fluid compartment

6

What is considered as output?

Kidneys
Lungs
Feces
Sweat
Skin

7

Layers of cellular fluid in the body

Plasma

Capillary membrane

Interstitial fluid

Cell membrane

Intracellular fluid

8

What is the barrier between the plasma and interstitial fluid compartments?

Capillary membrane

9

Where is the capillary membrane important in the kidney?

Glomerulus filtration

Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta for reabsorption of substances into the blood stream

10

What is the barrier between the interstitial fluid compartment and intracellular fluid?

Cell membrane

11

Where is the cell membrane in the kidney important?

Reabsorption and/or secretion of substances through the cells lining the nephron tubules

12

To maintain homeostasis, water intake must:

Balance water output

13

What are the 2 sources of water in the body?

Ingestion

Synthesis

14

What happens to water when ingested?

It is absorbed from the GI tract into the plasma compartment

15

Water synthesis is made how?

Oxidation of carbohydrates

Contributes to intracellular fluid

16

What are the two types of water loss?

Insensible and sensible water loss

17

What is insensible water loss

Evaporation through ventilation and through the skin

**does NOT include sweat!**

18

What is sensible water loss?

Sweat

Feces

Kidneys (excretion of urine)

19

How much sweat is typically lost?

Depends on the ambient temperature and physical activity (normally approx 100 ml/day; can increase to 1-2 L per hour with heavy sweating)

20

How much water is lost from feces?

Approx 100 ml/day- increases with diarrhea

21

How much water is lost from urine excretion

Approx 1400 ml/day

22

The capillary wall is highly permeable to ____ and ____. Therefore:

Water

Ions

Ion concentrations are nearly the same

23

What does the Donnan effect state?

Because plasma proteins have a net negative charge, there are slightly more cations in the plasma than in the interstitial fluid

24

The capillary wall to practically impermeable to:

Proteins

25

The protein concentration of plasma is (HIGHER/LOWER) than interstitial fluid.

What does plasma contain?

Higher

Albumin, lipoproteins, antibodies, etc.

26

The plasma cell membrane (IS/IS NOT) permeable to most ions and protein, therefore:

is NOT

There are many differences between ECF and ICF

27

What is the ECF higher in?

NA+, Cl-, HCO3-

28

What is ICF higher in?

K+, PO4-3, MG+2, organic anions, protein

29

A way to measure patient’s fluid compartments is by using what principle?

Indicator dilution principle

30

What is the indicator dilution principle equation?

Volume B = volume A x [A]/[B]