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1

Who discovered Xrays? When?

His first X-ray was:

Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895

his wife’s hand

2

In _____, Wilhelm Roentgen won the first Nobel prize for ____.

1901

Physics

3

Properties of Xrays

Photons

No mass, no electrical charge, invisible

Contain more energy than visible light due to their higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths

Can penetrate most matter

Travel in straight lines until they interact with matter

Expose photo and radiographic film

Can penetrate, be absorbed or scattered in the body

Capable of changing biological matter via ionization

Can be produced in a wide range of energies

4

Xrays are made and emitted from the ___. They go into the ____.

Tube

Patient.

5

The more ____ the tissue is, the more the X-ray is absorbed by that part

Dense

6

The denser the tissue, the ______ or ____ it will appear on the X-ray

Whiter or lighter

7

XRAYS, AKA:

Film

Radiograph

View

8

Degreed person who takes the X-ray

Rad technician/ radiographer

9

Doctor who reads the X-ray

Radiologist

10

What is matter that is easily penetrated by X-ray?

What color are those typically

Radiolucent

Dark/black

11

What factors can cause something to be more or less radiolucent

Decrease in density

Decrease in radiopacity

12

What is matter that is NOT easily penetrated by X-ray?


Shows up as:

Radiopaque

Lighter/white

13

What cause more or less radiopaque

Increase in density

Increase in radiopacity

14

5 radiographic densities— least dense to most dense (More radiolucent to least radiolucent)

Air

Fat

Water

Bone

Metal

15

A substance that makes an area no normally visible on X-ray, visible.

What density is usually used?

Contrast agent

Metal density

16

An object that is produced on the X-ray bu some external action

Artifact

17

What are some examples of artifacts?

Clothing

Surgical

Film/processing

Jewelry

Patient motion

18

Ways to compare radiographic films

compare opposite sides (extremities, pars)

Time comparison (was it there before)

19

What are serial radiographs/films?

Films taken over time to monitor progression or lack of progression (pneumonia, fractures, scoliosis)

20

ALL X-rays must have a:

Mitchell marker

21

What is the purpose of a Mitchell marker?

Tells which side is closes to the film (lateral views of the axial skeleton)

Tell which side of the pt is rt or lt. (A-P and P-A views of the axial skeleton, chest and abdomen)

Tells which extremity is X-rayed, rt or lt

Tells which side is closest to the film on oblique spinal and chest X-Rays

22

General consideration for X-rays

All xrays must have a Mitchell marker

There must be a sufficient anatomy for identification of the anatomical location

Extremity xrays must include a joint

Take a min of 2 views (opposing views), 90 degrees to each other

XRays must have a permanent ID label

23

What should be found on the permanent ID label?

Pt name

Clinic or docs name

Date film is taken

Patients age or birthday

24

The part of interest in an X-ray is closest to what?

The film (which helps decrease magnification)

25

Basic radiographic positions

Upright

Recumbent

26

Radiographic views?

A-P (anteroposterior)

P-A (posteroanterior)

Lateral

Oblique

27

What is an A-P position

Posterior aspect of the body or part is against the film. X-rays enter through the anterior aspect

28

Describe P-A view

Anterior aspect of the body or part against the film. XRays enter through the post aspect of the body

29

Lateral radiographic view

Lateral aspect of the body or part is against the film

30

Oblique radiographic views

Patient or body part is rotated away from the film at an angle (mc 45 deg)