Unit 1 and Unit 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 and Unit 2 Deck (51):
1

what are the properties of life?

Responds, Grows, Reproduces, Homeostasis, Complex Chemistry, Cells

2

steps of the scientific method

1. Observe
2. Question
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Conclusion
6. Communicate Results

3

independent variable

is purposely changed; changes the dependent variable

4

dependent variable

this is what is measured; changed by the independent variable

5

atoms

the smallest particles that can be broken down chemically

6

what is in the nucleus of an atom?

protons and neutrons

7

what is around the nucleus?

electrons; protons = electrons

8

elements

substances made out of one type of atom

9

ions

an atom that has a slight charge due to losing or gaining an electron

10

hydrogen bonding

weak bond caused by attraction between proton and an electronegative atom

11

ionic bonds

where electrons are transferred

12

covalent bonds

where electrons are shared

13

properties of water

1. water molecules are attracted to each other: cohesion
2. adhesion: attraction between two different substances
3. absorbs heat
4. dissolves many substances

14

acids

pH 6 or lower; increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solutions

15

bases

pH higher than 8-14 (7 is neutral); increases the hydroxide ion

16

carbohydrates

sugars and starches; linked monosaccharide rings; short-term energy and structural support; found in grains and plants; ex: glucose and cellulose

17

lipids

fats and oils; made of nonpolar fatty acid chains; long-term energy storage; found in meats and oils; ex: steroids and triglycerides

18

what are the types of lipids?

saturated fats: contain only single bonds; unsaturated fats: contain double bonds; trans fats: considered unhealthy, found in junk food

19

proteins

made of amino acids; found in meat, eggs, beans; ex: enzymes and hemoglobin

20

enzymes...

speed up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy

21

nucleic acids

DNA and RNA; made of strings of nucleotides; DNA stores hereditary info; RNA manages protein production

22

what makes up a nucleotide?

sugar, phosphate group, and a base

23

ATP

special nucleic acid composed of only one nucleotide; cellular energy supply; energy is released when high energy phosphate bonds are broken

24

chemical reaction formula

reactants "yields" products

25

activation energy

the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction

26

overall energy

is the difference between the reactants and products

27

exergonic

energy is released; product energy is lower than the reactants

28

endergonic

energy is absorbed; product energy is higher than reactants

29

enzymes attract substrates to what?

the active/activation sites; works by placing the substrates together properly to put them together or break them apart

30

light microscope

sends a beam of light through the slide

31

electron microscope

sends beam of electrons through slide; shows images in greater detail than light microscopes

32

lenses on a microscope

objectives

33

Hooke

built his own microscope and discovered that there are "cells" within cork

34

Leeuwenhoek

made very advanced microscope for his time; discovered animalcules which are now called bacteria

35

Schwann, Schleiden, Virchow

all of their ideas created the cell theory

36

cell theory 1

all organisms are made of one or more cells

37

cell theory 2

all the life functions or organisms occur within cells

38

cell theory 3

all cells come from already existing cells

39

why are most cells small?

the smaller the cell, the easier it is to find nutrients and get rid of waste

40

active transport

require the use of energy: lower concentration to higher

41

passive transport

doesn't require energy; goes with the concentration gradient

42

diffusion

moves to where it is less concentrated

43

facilitated diffusion

uses transport proteins

44

endocytosis

absorbed

45

exocytosis

released

46

hypertonic

higher concentration of solute outside

47

hypotonic

lower concentration of solute outside

48

isotonic

equal concentrations

49

prokaryotes do not have

organelles

50

plant cells have..., and animal cells do not

a central vacuole, chloroplasts, and a cell wall

51

animal cells have..., and plant cells do not

lysosomes