Unit 1: Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Cells Deck (57):
1

What is oxygen's partial charge in water and why

It has a partial negative charge bc of its greater electronegativity

2

Alkalinity (basic)

Measure of hydroxide ion concentration

3

Organic Compounds

Molecules that are carbon and hydrogen based

4

Why can carbon make complex structures?

Bc it can bond four times due to its high electronegativity

5

Four Organic Compounds

Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

6

Which of the four organic compounds are macromolecules?

Carbs, proteins, nucleic acids

7

Carbohydrate Isomer

Same molecular formula but different structural formula

8

Monosaccharides types

Glucose, fructose, and galactose

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Monomer

Basic building block that can be a repeating unit

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Disaccharide

Two simple sugars bonded

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Glucose+glucose=

Maltose

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Glucose+fructose=

Sucrose

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Glucose+galactose=

Lactose

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What ratio must there be between hydrogen and oxygen in order for it to be a sugar

2:1

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Polysaccharides

Macromolecules

16

Macromolecules

A molecule made of repeating units

17

Examples of polysaccharides

Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Chitin

18

Where is starch stored?

Plants

19

Where is cellulose stored?

Cell wall of plants

20

Where is glycogen stored?

Animals

21

Where is chitin stored?

Exoskeleton of some animals

22

What do carbs provide?

Structure, quick energy when bonds break, protection

23

What do lipids provide?

Store energy, cushion, insulation, regulates what goes in and out of cell

24

What are phospholipids made up of? What is it?

Glycerol, phosphate group, two fatty acids . It's amphipathic

25

Amphipathic

A molecule that has both hydrophobic and phyilic parts

26

Saturated vs. unsaturated fat

Sat is single bonded, can be compressed
Unsat is double bonded so it's bent

27

Glycosidic bonds

Bonds that bond sugar monosaccharides

28

Ester bonds

Bonds that bond lipids

29

Waxes

Ester bonds with long carbon chains

30

Enzymes

Proteins that act as catalysts to a reaction

31

Spontaneous reactions

Energy of the reactions is greater than that of the products

32

Cofactors

Non protein molecules that bind to the enzymes so that the enzyme can function (minerals)

33

Competitive Inhibition

Competes for the active site so substrate can't enter

34

Non competitive inhibitor

The inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site (allosteric site), changing the shape of the enzyme, making it ineffective

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Nucleic Acids

Organic molecules with phosphorus

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Building blocks of Nucleic Acids?

Nucleotides, phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base

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Examples of Nucleic acids

DNA + RNA

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Four nitrogenous bases

Adenine, gaunine, thymine, cytosine

39

What are DNA's Antiparallel strands and what does that mean?

The 3' and the 5', they're complimentary

40

What does amylase do?

Breaks down starch

41

Epiglottis

Flap that makes sure food and water don't go into lungs

42

Peristalsis

Wavelike contractions that help push down food

43

Cardiac sphincter/ lower esophageal sphincter

Closure between the esophagus and stomach that open when food approaches, prevents acid reflux

44

What is the enzyme that breaks down proteins?

Pepsinogen

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How is pepsinogen made?

When HCL deactivates pepsin, turning it into pepsinogen

46

Small intestine

Longer than large intestine, where the majority of digestion occurs, breakdown of carbs, proteins, lipids, and Nucleic acid

Where absorption of monomers into bloodstream occur

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Large intestine

All nutrients that don't get absorbed pass through here
Absorbs water
Has over 500 types of bacteria

48

Accessory organs

Organs that contribute to digestion but food doesn't pass through

49

Pancreas

Supply enzyme to the small intestine to help with breakdown

50

Liver

Makes bile (breaks down fat)

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Gall bladder:

Stores bile before it reaches small intestine

52

Draw carbonyl and carboxyl groups

Look up image

53

Seven functional groups

Hydroxyl
Carbonyl
Carboxyl
Amino
Sulfhydral
Phosphate
Methyl

54

What is a glycerol molecule?

An alcohol with three carbon

55

Function of a triglyceride?

Store energy

56

Four levels of a protein structure and mini description

Primary: unique sequence of amino cells
Secondary: parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into local patterns
Tertiary: the overall 3D shape of a polypeptide
Quaternary: caused by the association of subunits

57

How does carbon enter a biosphere?

Photosynthesis