Flashcards in Unit 1: Cells Deck (57):
What is oxygen's partial charge in water and why
It has a partial negative charge bc of its greater electronegativity
Measure of hydroxide ion concentration
Molecules that are carbon and hydrogen based
Why can carbon make complex structures?
Bc it can bond four times due to its high electronegativity
Four Organic Compounds
Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Which of the four organic compounds are macromolecules?
Carbs, proteins, nucleic acids
Same molecular formula but different structural formula
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Basic building block that can be a repeating unit
Two simple sugars bonded
What ratio must there be between hydrogen and oxygen in order for it to be a sugar
A molecule made of repeating units
Examples of polysaccharides
Where is starch stored?
Where is cellulose stored?
Cell wall of plants
Where is glycogen stored?
Where is chitin stored?
Exoskeleton of some animals
What do carbs provide?
Structure, quick energy when bonds break, protection
What do lipids provide?
Store energy, cushion, insulation, regulates what goes in and out of cell
What are phospholipids made up of? What is it?
Glycerol, phosphate group, two fatty acids . It's amphipathic
A molecule that has both hydrophobic and phyilic parts
Saturated vs. unsaturated fat
Sat is single bonded, can be compressed
Unsat is double bonded so it's bent
Bonds that bond sugar monosaccharides
Bonds that bond lipids
Ester bonds with long carbon chains
Proteins that act as catalysts to a reaction
Energy of the reactions is greater than that of the products
Non protein molecules that bind to the enzymes so that the enzyme can function (minerals)
Competes for the active site so substrate can't enter
Non competitive inhibitor
The inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site (allosteric site), changing the shape of the enzyme, making it ineffective
Organic molecules with phosphorus
Building blocks of Nucleic Acids?
Nucleotides, phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
Examples of Nucleic acids
DNA + RNA
Four nitrogenous bases
Adenine, gaunine, thymine, cytosine
What are DNA's Antiparallel strands and what does that mean?
The 3' and the 5', they're complimentary
What does amylase do?
Breaks down starch
Flap that makes sure food and water don't go into lungs
Wavelike contractions that help push down food
Cardiac sphincter/ lower esophageal sphincter
Closure between the esophagus and stomach that open when food approaches, prevents acid reflux
What is the enzyme that breaks down proteins?
How is pepsinogen made?
When HCL deactivates pepsin, turning it into pepsinogen
Longer than large intestine, where the majority of digestion occurs, breakdown of carbs, proteins, lipids, and Nucleic acid
Where absorption of monomers into bloodstream occur
All nutrients that don't get absorbed pass through here
Has over 500 types of bacteria
Organs that contribute to digestion but food doesn't pass through
Supply enzyme to the small intestine to help with breakdown
Makes bile (breaks down fat)
Stores bile before it reaches small intestine
Draw carbonyl and carboxyl groups
Look up image
Seven functional groups
What is a glycerol molecule?
An alcohol with three carbon
Function of a triglyceride?
Four levels of a protein structure and mini description
Primary: unique sequence of amino cells
Secondary: parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into local patterns
Tertiary: the overall 3D shape of a polypeptide
Quaternary: caused by the association of subunits