Unit 1 - I. Osteology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 - I. Osteology Deck (69)
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1

What are the four basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, neural & connective tissues

2

What is osteology?

the study of bone

3

What are the three primary cell types of bone?

osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts

4

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast - form bone;
osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone
osteoclast - remodel bone

5

What are the bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates & hyaluronic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type I

9

What are the primary constituents of the bone mineral?

calcium, phosphate, citrate & carbonate ions

10

What is the most frequently describe deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium & radium

12

What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors such as anxiety, tension or pressure; bone is formed or absorbed in response to these same stressors

13

What three responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors such as anxiety, tension or pressure and to age

14

Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissue?

mesenchyme and/or cartilage

15

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

16

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

from the second to third month in utero

17

What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

the skull

18

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

19

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the second to fifth month in utero

20

Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the mandible, sphenoid, temporal & occipital bones

21

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

22

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

23

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous or trabecular bone

24

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

subchondral bone

25

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

the periosteum

26

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?

the endosteum

27

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

28

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

sexual dimorphism or gender variation

29

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

ontogenetic variation

30

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

geographic variation or population based variation