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Flashcards in Unit 1- Land of Fire and Ice Deck (13)
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1

a volcanic eruption

Eyjafjallajökull
2010, volcano situated just 160km west of where volcano erupted

2

what were the causes of the Eyjafjallajökull?

- it lay on the sixth biggest ice sheet in Iceland, approximately 100km2- resulted in excess flood water as the ice sheet melted
- it had erupted 6 times previously, most recent being 1821-23
- the magma is produced along a constructive plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian plates (Mid-Atlantic ridge)
- when the volcano erupted in 2010, a large area of atmospheric pressure lay across the North Atlantic. This led to high altitude wind circulation, it blew clock-wise spreading the volcanic ash close to the south and east of iceland of up to 7000m

3

how did iceland manage the eruption?

- the european commission permitted state aid to airlines affected however full compensation was not available
- individual countries decided whether to ban flights or not
- Icelanders are aware of their countries environmental hazards and understand what to do with the assistance and compensation available to them

4

what were the social impacts of the eruption?

- livestock had to remain indoors
- flights to westman islands were cancelled-4000 people live there and rely on fishing, affected their income
- breathing masks were recommended to be worn outside
- sections of the main route-way were washed away due to the flash flooding caused by melt water

5

what were the economic impacts of the eruption?

- 313 airlines across europe were forced to close
- major airlines 130million revenue a day
- global airlines lost over 1 billion
- european travel industry lost 1.7bn

6

what were the environmental impacts of the eruption?

- sulfur dioxide and other gases were released in the eruption killing vegetation
- affected iceland's coastal sand plain
- a 3mm layer of ash was deposited across the landscape
- the ash contains fluoride which contaminates water supplies and is dangerous to animals

7

what are the opportunities of living on a volcanic site?

- renewable energy source in geothermal energy
- volcanic rocks after broken down after thousands of years from very rich soils
- tourism creates jobs and business
- minerals such as tin, silver, gold, copper and even diamonds can be found in volcanic rock= commercial mining

8

earthquake in an MEDC

Tohoku, Japan
Japan is located on the specific ring of fire, at the destructive boundary between the pacific plate, the Eurasian plate and the Philippine plate. Tohoku is the region of the northeast Honshu, the largest island of Japan

9

what were the economic effects of the quake?

- the cost of recovery cost $235bn
- tokyo stocks fell
- economic loss from the nuclear meltdown

10

what were the social effects of the quake?

- panic
- fewer than 20 killed by the quake itself
- 15,883 deaths, 6150 injured
- 45,000 building destroyed and over 100,000 damaged
- 1.2 million homes without power
- 1.4 million homes without water
- the tsunami disabled emergency generators required to cool the reactors at fukushima triggering a nuclear meltdown, people evacuated

11

what were the environmental impacts of the quake?

- liquefaction covered large areas in mud
- the earthquake triggered a tsunami that had waves as high as 10m
- many animals killed by the tsunami
- ground ruptured

12

what were the immediate responses to the quake?

- 3 minutes after the quake a tsunami warning was issues
- 59 search and rescue experts, 4 medics and 2 sniffer dogs flew out on a plane with 11 tonnes of equipment on board
- 91 countries offered air
- meteorological agency appeared on TV warning people

13

what were the long term responses to the quake?

- 116 countries and 28 international organisations offered assistance
- jackie chan donated $3 million