Where are the New England colonies located?
Along the Northeast of the United States
What were the names of the English people who colonized the New England area of the USA?
They were called Pilgrims
What is the difference between a Pilgrim and a Puritan?
Nothing. I mean there is, but for the STAAR, you don’t worry about those differences. Just remember they are religious people who settled the New England colonies.
Why did Pilgrims and Puritans come to settle the New England colonies?
They wanted religious freedom
What is the climate like in New England?
What does the geography of New England look like?
- Natural harbors
- Dense forests
What is a natural harbor?
A natural harbor is a sheltered area of water where ships can enter and rest. While the ships are resting, the crew of the ship will make repairs.
Why did the New England economy place a big importance on shipbuilding?
Because the New England colonies had many natural harbors.
Why did the New England economy place a big importance on fishing?
It was cold in New England, so the colonists who lived there, over time, because very good fishermen.
What type of fish made the most money for people in the New England area?
Why did the New England colonies like to make money by trading stuff?
The New England colonies had good harbors for big ships to enter and rest, and the bigger the ship, the more stuff it had to trade.
What does it mean to “trade stuff”?
It means to buy and sell things.
People still trade today. When you enter a Walmart or an HEB to buy groceries, you are trading paper($$) for food.
Besides Plymouth, what was another colony that was in the New England colonies area?
Massachusetts Bay Colony
What happens to the Plymouth Bay colony?
It adds itself to the much bigger and more successful Massachusetts Bay Colony
Which city is the biggest in all of the New England area?
Who is Roger Williams?
A puritan leader that thought the Puritans shouldn’t be taking Native American land away from the Natives.
Who is Anne Hutchinson?
She thought woman could teach men, even though the Bible literally says women can’t teach men.
What happened to Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson?
They got kicked out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
What did Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson do when they got kicked out?
started a brand new colony called Rhode Island.
Today, Rhode Island is the smallest state out of all the 50 states.
What are the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?
It created a government with an elected legislature and governor.
Why is the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut important?
Because it is another example of how the colonists were creating self-governing governments.
In other words, they were creating Democracy all on their own.
What four colonies were included in the New England colonies?
- Rhode Island
- New Hampshire
What does it mean when a government “asks for the consent of the governed”?
It means that the government is asking you for your permission to do things.
What does a town meeting look like in New England?
Think of like a community circle, but like for an entire town.
Who could speak in the town meetings in New England?
Only male church leaders
What is a theocracy?
A government where the religion decides what the laws are
What type of government was most common in the New England colonies?
What type of Theocracies existed in the New England colonies?
Christian Theocracies. These were governments where the rulers would use their interpretation of the Bible to make laws.
What is subsistence farming?
- The type of farming that occurred in the New England colonies.
- A type of farming where you only grow enough plants to feed you and your family
What is commercial farming?
- The type of farming common in the Southern colonies
- A type of farming where you grow plants to make money.
Subsistence farming or commercial farming?
Tobacco plants in Virginia
Subsistence farming or commercial farming?
Corn plants in New England Colonies
What is the patriarchy?
- A type of society where men are worth more than women. The 13 colonies were very Patriarchal. (Male-dominated)
What is a close-knit family?
The type of family structure that people in New England had.
What is social class?
Think of them like cliques in school, but for adults.
Who were at the top of the social classes in colonial America?
White men who owned property
Who were at the bottom of the social classes in Colonial America?
Enslaved people, most of whom were kidnapped from Africa and forced to work for free by law.
Why is it better to call someone “enslaved”, rather than “slave”?
Saying enslaved is more historically accurate since the laws of the 13 colonies forced kidnapped African people into slavery.
Why didn’t enslaved people fight back against their enslavers?
- They did fight back, and many of them died horribly.
- We have documentation of white supremacists erasing Black history, so there could have been more “slave rebellions” we just don’t know enough about.
- Enslavers were protected by the laws of the government. Enslaved people could not legally fight back against their enslavers.
What is the difference between a craftsmen and a farmer?
A craftsmen makes stuff, depending on their craft. They could make musical instruments, tools, or weapons.
A farmer grows plants, for food or for money.
What does it mean to have a “superiority complex”?
It means you legit think you are better than everyone else. It means that you think what you do is SUPER IMPORTANT, even though you are made of blood and bones just like everyone else.
Who had a “superiority complex”?
Puritans. They legit believed the whole world was watching them and their “city upon a hill”.
What is John Winthrop’s “City upon a Hill” speech about?
Basically he said that if the Puritans mess up and don’t listen to God and follow God’s commands, that the whole world is going to be laughing at the Puritans. (he legit meant it too, remember, they think they are superior and very important)
What is a proprietor?
A person who owns all of the land in the colony and can do whatever they want with it. All proprietors wanted to make money, so they invited people to come live on their land.
Where did proprietors live?
Even though the proprietors owned some of the colonies (like New York), the proprietors themselves lived in England, far far away from the colonies they owned.
Who ruled over the land while the proprietors lived in England?
The proprietor would name someone as governor. The governor would rule as if they were the proprietor and do whatever the proprietor asked.
Who else did the proprietors allow to rule over their land, besides governors?
They sometimes allowed people to vote and choose representatives.
Which colonies were proprietary colonies?
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland
What colonies make up the “Middle Colonies”?
- New York
- New Jersey
What is Pennsylvania known for?
Religious toleration and Quakers
Why is Pennsylvania known for quakers and religious toleration?
Because a quaker named William Penn started the colony Pennsylvania for religious toleration
What is religious toleration?
It means you are okay with whatever God(s) people worship, even if they don’t worship anything.
What’s a quaker?
A type of Christian religion.
Quakers would be a type of Christian religion that would be against slavery and in favor of women’s equality
What does it mean to manufacture something?
To make a raw material into a manufactured product
What is a raw material?
Something found in nature. Not man-made
Examples are : Oil, water, gold, iron, wood
What is a manufactured product?
It comes when people combine different raw materials.
Examples: Clothing, car tires, watches, guns, pencils, tables
What do you call a place that converts raw materials into manufactured products?
Manufacturing is done in a factory.
What did the middle colonies manufacture?
- Ironworks (like weapons and tools)
- Other stuff but im a nice guy and won’t make you remember it <3
What is the difference between a carpenter and a mason?
A carpenter is someone who builds with wood to construct buildings.
A mason is someone who builds with stone or brick
What was a major effect of Pennsylvania being created for religious toleration?
It attracted a lot of people from different religions.
What is an enterprise?
An enterprise is a business.
What is a free-enterprise system?
A type of economic system where businesses are free to compete against each other.
What is a nickname for the free-enterprise system?
What was the Maryland Toleration Act?
It was a law that was passed that granted religious freedom. Allowed all free adult Christian males the right to vote and hold office
What is a plantation?
A slave labor camp that usually has fertile soil so that the enslaved people can do all the work to grow cash crops.
What happened on plantations?
Enslaved Black men, women, and children were forced to work against their will for their entire lives in order to make their white enslavers rich
Why did the southern colonies adopt slavery so quickly?
- Because their climate and soil made it really easy to grow plants, including cash crops
- Labor shortages meant they wanted to find workers quick
Why was Georgia created?
Because the English thought that the Spanish could attack them. So they wanted to create a colony that was a “buffer”.
What is a “buffer” colony?
A colony that has alot of forts and guns to protect against an attack.
Georgia was a buffer colony from the English, in case the Spanish attacked from Spanish Florida.
What were three cash crops grown in the South using enslaved labor?
- Indigo (dye)
What was the triangular trade
Trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas
What was the Middle Passage?
- A part of the Triangular Trade
- The voyages that enslaved people took after they were taken from Africa and sent to the Americas
What conditions did enslaved people suffer while on the middle passage?
Words can’t really describe how it was like, but people were forced to eat, sleep, and use the restroom in the same place, living there for several weeks.
What colonies benefitted from the labor of the enslaved?
All of the colonies
What was Bacon’s Rebellion?
A rebellion that was started by mostly poor white farmers and Black people, both free and enslaved, to fight against the rich white people who controlled the Virginia colonial government
How did Bacon’s rebellion end?
The guy who started it, Nathaniel Bacon, died because he pooped himself to death. Several of the other leaders were captured and killed. The rebellion failed to stop rich white people.
What did Bacon’s rebellion teach rich white people?
That you cant let the poor whites and Black people become friends, because if they do, they can unite to kill the rich white people who have power.
How did rich white people make sure that poor white people didn’t become friends with Black people?
They created a racial hierarchy. They lied to white people, telling them they were special because of their skin color, and that Black people deserved to be enslaved because of their skin color.
How did rich white people make sure that the racial hierarchy was being followed?
Rich white people created laws saying that white and Black people couldn’t marry or hang out and be friends.
What was the origin of racism in the United States?
The origin was the racial hierarchy created after Bacon’s rebellion by rich white people, as well as their continued use of slavery to make themselves rich.
What does dehumanization mean?
It means to make someone feel less than human.
Imagine if you asked your teacher to drink some water, and they took out a dog bowl and made you drink out of it. That would be an example of someone dehumanizing you
What did the racial hierarchy and racism do to Black people in the 13 colonies?
It dehumanized them
Why did Colonists across the 13 colonies create their own system of government?
Their distance from England meant they needed to make quick choices.
Most colonial governments chose a government that focused on majority rule
What are examples of institutions and documents that provided for self government?
- Mayflower Compact
- Virginia House of Burgesses
- Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
What was the first great awakening?
A religious movement that created new religions and gave colonists new ideas about God
What was a new idea that came out of the First Great Awakening?
The idea that you didn’t need to talk to a pastor, priest, or minister in order to talk to God
How did enslaved people resist being forced into slavery?
- Working at a slower pace
- Losing their tools or breaking them on purpose
- Starting rebellions to kill enslavers
What is mercantalism?
Strong countries go and colonize weak countries. Those weakened countries then become colonies to the strong country. The strong country becomes the mother country, as it attacks more weaker countries and makes them colonies.
What is the Stono Rebellion?
The largest rebellion by enslaved people in the history of the 13 colonies.