Unit 1 Poss. Test Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Poss. Test Questions Deck (40)
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1
Q

How is Earth History or Historical Geology different from Physical Geology?

A

Historical Geology is more concerned about the history of Earth and the history of life (biota) on Earth.

2
Q

The earliest simple use of stone by man creatures began more than ______ years ago.

A

The earliest discovered simple use of stone by man creatures began more than 2 million years ago.

3
Q

How did Greek Herodotus (500 BC) describe fossils?

A

Herodotus (500 BC) recognized fossils as forms of ancient life.

4
Q

How did Aristotle (350 BC) derive explanations to the natural world? (Did he believe in scientific experiments?)

A

Aristotle (350 BC) used simple observations and logic (but no experiments).

5
Q

How did Pliny the Elder describe what we now know as fossil shark teeth?

A

The Roman - Pliny the Elder (50 A.D.) - attributed fossil shark teeth as “tongue stones” that fell to Earth during lunar eclipses.

6
Q

What were some misinterpretations of fossils used by Middle Age Europe?

A

For most of Middle Age Europe (500-1500 AD), there were numerous interpretations to explain the fossils that were found in the rocks:

  • Works of the devil
  • Early failed experiment of the Creator
  • Victims of Noah’s flood
  • Creatures that grew in the rock from “seeds” within the rocks
7
Q

What interpretations did Leonardo de Vinci make of fossils, in regards to a world-wide flood and why was that a problem for him?

A

Leonardo de Vinci (1510) made several correct interpretations of fossils.

  • He recognized that fossil assemblages resembled living marine communities.
  • He proposed that fossils were remains of once-living creatures.
  • He noted interbedded fossiliferous and unfossiliferous layers of rocks, and inferred it was unlikely that all of these fossils were formed by one worldwide flood.
8
Q

What do we call the thousand year period in which almost no scientific advancements were made?

A

The fall of the Roman Empire issued in the Dark Ages (500 AD - 1500 AD) in which there would be almost no scientific advances.

9
Q

Is it illegal to sell fake fossils?

A

It is not illegal to sell fake fossils.

10
Q

Who is considered to be the Father of Mining and Mineralogy?

A

Georgius Agricola (1553) is considered to be the Father of Mining and Mineralogy.

11
Q

Geologic knowlege increased dramatically from 1650 to the 1800s because of ______.

A

Geologic knowledge began increasing dramatically from 1650 to the 1800s because:

  • More people became world travelers and observers
  • Mining of minerals for the industrial age would became a science; here knowledge of geological factors is critical.
  • People began collecting minerals and especially fossils as a serious hobby.
12
Q

Distinguish between stratum, strata and bedding planes, especially with a drawing.

A

Stratum refers to a single layer of sediment or rock.
Strata is two or more layers of sediments or rocks.
Bedding plane is contact between two beds or stratum.

13
Q

Give a simple definition of stratigraphy.

A

Stratigraphy is the study of strata.

14
Q

Strata can be used to interpret - what?

A

Strata can be used to interpret the record of environmental changes on the Earth’s surface.

15
Q

There are two types of rocks that may contain fossils - which are they?

A

The only strata that usually contain fossils are that of sedimentary rocks and volcanic ash.

16
Q

Why are stratigraphic sediments important to the field of geology?

A

Stratigraphic sediments tell the relative age and the environments that formed them.

17
Q

Learn the “drawing symbols” for limestone, sandstone, shale, granite, metamorphic rocks, unconformity and baked zone (separate handout)

A

-

18
Q

What honor is given to Nicolas Steno (1636-1686)?

A

Nicolas Steno is considered to be the father of stratigraphy.

19
Q

Define the Principle of Superposition.

A

The Principle of Superposition states that if undisturbed, the oldest layer of rock (stratum) will be at the bottom of the sequence and the youngest layer of rock (stratum) will be at the top of the sequence.

20
Q

Define the Principle of Original Horizontality.

A

The Principle of Original Horizontality states that because of gravity, sediments will be deposited in essentially horizontal layer or strata. If these strata or beds are not horizontal, the layers must have been later tilted.

21
Q

Define the Principle of Lateral Continuity.

A

The Principle of Lateral Continuity states that a layer of sediment will extend laterally in all directions, until the bed thins out or terminates against the edge of a basin.

22
Q

Abraham Werner taught “Neptunism” that advocates that all rocks came from _____ which satisfied all Biblical accounts.

A

Abraham Werner taught “Neptunism” that advocates that all rocks came from a universal ocean - good for a world-wide flood.

23
Q

How long have we been using the words geology and geologist?

A

The word “geology” was first used by Jean-Andre Deluc in the year 1778.

24
Q

What honor is given to James Hutton (1790s)?

A

James Hutton is considered as the Father of Modern Geology.

25
Q

Define uniformitarianism which is a critical geological concept.

A

Uniformitarianism states the present is a key to the past; present day geologic processes are the same processes that have operated over vast amounts of time.

26
Q

Do the rates and intensity of geologic changes have to be constant over time?

A

The rates of geologic changes and intensity of geologic changes do not have to be constant throughout time.

27
Q

Why was the Doctrine of Catastrophism so important to many people?

A

The Doctrine of Catastrophism states the Earth was shaped by a series of giant disasters that involved forces of tremendous violence, surpassing anything experience in nature. Noah’s Flood easily fit into this theory.

28
Q

Define a stratigraphic hiatus (How is it different than an unconformity?)Remember that a hiatus is “missing strata and missing time” and an unconformity is a surface that represents ______ or _______ or both.

A
  • An unconformity is a surface or bedding plane representing erosion of rocks or non-deposition of rocks or both processes.
  • A hiatus is an interval of geologic time that is not represented by strata.
29
Q

Define Disconformity.

A

Disconformity is when erosion creates a surface somewhat parallel to the existing sedimentary beds.

30
Q

Define Nonconformity.

A

Nonconformity is when erosion creates a surface that is cut into igneous or metamorphic rocks.

31
Q

Define Angular Unconformity.

A

Angular Unconformity is when erosion creates a surface that cuts across folded or tilted strata.

32
Q

Define the Principle of Deformation.

A

The Principle of Deformation states that folds and tilted beds indicate deformation that postdates (after) deposition.

33
Q

Define the Principle of Cross Cutting Relationships.

A

The Principle of Cross Cutting Relationships states that a rock feature that cuts across through a host rock is younger than the host rock it cuts.

34
Q

Define the Principle of Inclusions.

A

The Principle of Inclusions states that igneous or sedimentary rocks that contain inclusions of other rocks must be younger than the rocks they include.

35
Q

Define the Principle of Baked Contacts.

A

The Principle of Baked Contacts states that intruding or flowing igneous rock often “bakes or alters” the rock surrounding it.

36
Q

Who is considered the Father of Vertebrate Paleontology?

A

Baron Georges Cuvier (1796) is considered the Father of Vertebrate Paleontology.

37
Q

What was the contribution by William Smith to geology (fossils and maps)?

A

William Smith [Strata Smith] (1815) reasoned that older fossils are found in the lower beds and that fossils in the upper beds would be younger. He also made one of the first accurate geologic maps.

38
Q

Explain the relationship between biota and the Principle of Fossil Succession (i.e. -how do geologists use this principle?)

A

The Principle of Fossil Succession states that fossil assemblages succeed one another through time in a regular and predictable order because:

  • Biota has become more complex through time.
  • Fossil assemblages fossil biota are recognizably different over time.
  • The relative ages of fossil assemblages can be determined over time.

Strata with the same fossil assemblages are the same relative age (this is common used by geologists).

39
Q

What type of a time indicator are fossils?

A

Fossils are “relative time” indicators.

40
Q

What was Charles Lyell’s contribution to geology?

A

Charles Lyell published the first geologic textbook: Principles of Geology in 1830. Lyell is also called the Father of Historical Geology.