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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (105):
1

Number of vertebrae

33

2

Primary curvatures

Thoracic & Sacrococcygeal

3

Secondary curvatures

Cervical & Lumbar

4

Atlas or __

First cervical vertebra

5

Axis or ___

Second cervical vertebra

6

Kyphosis

Thoracic Region: Exaggerated posterior curve

7

Lordosis

Lumbar Region: Exaggerated anterior curve

8

Scoliosis

Lumbar or Thoracic region: Lateral curve

9

Bifid spinous process

Only in cervical vertebra

10

Transverse foramina

Only in cervical vertebra

11

Odontoid process or "dens"

Axis (C2) Allows for shaking of the head

12

Superior articular process

Atlas (C1) For articulation with skull

13

Sharp downward pointing spinous process

Only in thoracic vertebrae

14

Articular facets for ribs

Only in thoracic vertebrae

15

Large vertebral body

Lumbar vertebrae

16

Short blunt spinous process

Lumbar vertebrae

17

Fused spinous processes form the median sacral crest

Sacrococcygeal

18

Sacral Canal

End of spine goes through

19

Intervertebral Discs made up of

Nucleus pulposus & annulus fibrosus

20

True Ribs

Ribs 1-7, attach directly to sternum

21

False Ribs

Ribs 8-10, do not attach directly to sternum

22

Floating ribs

Ribs 11&12

23

3 major components of sternum

Manubrium, body, xiphoid process

24

Sternum articulates with

Clavicle, true ribs (directly), false ribs (indirectly)

25

Manubrium and body meet at the

Sternal Angle

26

Carpal bones: medial to lateral, proximal:

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform

27

Carpal bones: medial to lateral, distal:

Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate

28

Origin of Trapezius

Vertebrae

29

Insertion of trapezius

Spine of scapula and acromion

30

Action of Trapezius

Elevates, retracts and depresses scapula

31

Innervation of Trapezius

Accessory nerve

32

Origin and insertion of levator scapulae

Cervical vertebrae -> Superior scapula

33

Action of levator scapulae

Elevates scapula

34

Innervation of levator scapulae

Dorsal scapular nerve

35

Action of serratus anterior

Protracts scapula and holds it to the body

36

Rhomboid action

Retracts scapula

37

Innervation of Rhomboid

Dorsal scapular nerve

38

Innervation of serratus anterior

Long thoracic nerve

39

Origin and insertion of pectoralis minor

Ribs -> coracoid process

40

Action of pec. minor

Protracts scapula

41

Innervation of pec. minor

Medial pectoral nerve

42

Accessory nerve innervates

Trapezius

43

Dorsal scapular nerve innervates

Levator scapulae, rhomboid

44

Medial pectoral nerve innervates

Pectoralis minor and half of pec. major

45

Medial and lateral pectoral nerve together innervate

Pectorals major

46

Pectoralis major insertion

Crest of greater tubercle

47

Action of pec. major

Adduction, medial rotaion of humerus

48

Insertion of latissimus dorsi

Intertubercular sulcus

49

Action of latissimus dorsi

Adducts, extends and medially rotates humerus

50

Innervation of latissimus dorsi

Thoracodorsal nerve

51

Subscapularis origin and insertion

subscapular fossa ->lesser tubercle of humerus

52

Innervation of subscapularis

Upper and lower subscapular nerve

53

Insertion of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor

Greater tubercle of humerus

54

Insert or originate in coracoid process

Pec. minor, coracobrachialis, short head of biceps brachii

55

Action of subscapularis

medial rotation of humerus

56

Origin and insertion of supraspinatus

supraspinous fossa --> Greater tubercle

57

Action of supraspinatus

Abducts humerus (first 15 degrees), deltoid does rest

58

Action of infraspinatus

Lateral rotation of humerus

59

Innervation of both supra and infra spinatus

Suprascapular nerve

60

Teres minor action

Lateral rotation of humerus

61

Innervation of teres minor

Axillary nerve

62

Insertion of teres major

Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus

63

Origin and insertion of deltoid

Clavicle + spine of scapula --> Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

64

Innervation of teres major

Lower subscapular nerve

65

Innervation of deltoid

Axillary nerve

66

Which muscles rotate humerus laterally

Infrasprinatus, teres minor, deltoid

67

Which muscles rotate humerus medially

Teres major, subscapularis, pec. major, lat. dorsi,

68

Action of teres major

Adducts, extends, medially rotates arm

69

Action of deltoid

Abducts and rotates arm

70

Action of coracobrachialis

Flexion and adduction of arm

71

Innervation of coracobrachialis

Musculocutaneous nerve

72

Origin and insertion of coracobrachialis

Coracoid Process --> Medial Humerus

73

Origin and isertion of short head biceps brachii

Coracoid Process --> Radial tuberosity

74

Origin and isertion of long head biceps brachii

Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula --> Radial Tuberosity

75

Innervation of biceps brachii

Musculocutaneous nerve

76

Action of biceps brachi short head

Suponation and flexion of forearm

77

Action of biceps brachi long head

Suponation and flexion of forearm

78

Origin and insertion of Brachialis

Anterior humerus -> Ulnar tuberosity

79

Action of Brachialis

Flexes forearm

80

Origin and insertion of triceps brachii

Long head- Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, medial and lateral head posterior humerus, all insert in olecranon fossa of ulna

81

Innervation of triceps brachii

Radial nerve

82

Superficial muscles of anterior forearm

Pronator teres, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorium superficialis

83

Action of flexor retinaculum

Holds flexor tendons at wrist

84

Deep muscles of anterior forearm

Flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus

85

Action and innervation of pronator teres

pronates forearm and flexes elbow, median n.

86

Action and innervation of flexor carpi radialis

Flexes wrist and abducts hand, median n.

87

Action and innervation of palmaris longus

Flexes wrist, median n.

88

Action and innervation of flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexes wrist and adducts hand, ULNAR N.

89

Action and innervation of flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexes digis 2-5 and wrist, median n.

90

Action and innervation of flexor digitorum profundus

Flexes digits 2-5 and wrist, half median and half ulnar n.

91

Action and innervation of flexor pollucis longus

Flexes pollux and wrist, median n.

92

Action and innervation of pronator quadratus

Pronates forearm, median n.

93

Superficial muscles of posterior forearm

Extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extenso carpi ulnaris,

94

Deep muscles of posterior forearm

Anconeus, supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis

95

Action of brachioradialis

Flexes forearm

96

Action of extensor carpi radialis longus

Extends and abducts hand

97

Action of extensor carpi radialis brevis

Extends and abducts hand

98

Action of extensor digitorum

Extends fingers and wrist

99

Action of extensor digiti minimi

Extends digiti minimi and wrist

100

Action of extensor carpi ulnaris

Extends and adducts hand

101

Action of anconeus

Extension of forearm

102

Action of supinator

Supinates forearm

103

Action of abductor pollicis longus

Abducts and extends thumb

104

The deep back muscles are called the

Erector spinae muscles

105

The deep back muscles are innervated by

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves