Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (45)
the goal of a study
to be unbiased and provide good results
equal probability of selection method
when a respondent answers for a group,
over represented individual
stratified random sampling
population is divided into groups called the strata
divide population into strata
randomly sample each group in proportion to size (household bias)
can provide more precise results
groups are different but are similar within
types of bias
non response bias
5 types of causal relationships:
cause and effect-one changes, effects other
common cause factor-external factor effects both
reverse cause and effect- opposite independent and dependent variables
accidental relationships- not effecting each other only coincidence
presumed relationship- correlation seems to exist but difficult to identify a common factor
what are the two types of data sources?
primary- collected by person doing analysis
and secondary- collected by an outside source
number that provides a measure of scale to compare data
ex. Rictor scale measures earthquakes
in a survey you should...
avoid the truth
uphold a high standard for your work
what is bias?
an unintended influence on a. data gathering method
what is a thesis?
the focus of your project that declares what you believe and are proving
other sampling methods
destructive sampling-samples destroyed in the process
voluntary response sample-people invited to participate, often skewed results because only some respond, not random
convenience samples- not random, pick random people off the street
what is sampling bias?
when the chosen sample does not accurately represent the population
a conclusion on the population based on sample data
variables measured numerically
what should you not do in a thesis?
avoid vague language
not first person
in Excel what does the dollar sign mean?
absolute or fixed
complete the same operation by the same number each time
if statement in Excel completes the action:
if one is greater than a certain value a ___ will be shown if it is less a ____ is shown
people behave differently when being watched
the apparent relationship between two variables
an inactive drug is administered to a subject who exhibits a positive reaction to the drug
what makes a good thesis?
be specific and focused,
should propose an arguable point
simple random sampling
all selections and combinations are equally likely
deviations due to chance
generate random numbers
assign the numbers to all elements in population
pull numbers at random and choose those elements
easy to understand
a collection of data taken from the entire population
what are the 3 questions asked before a survey is taken?
what is the population?
what should the sample size be?
how are the individuals chosen for the sample?
a group of individuals that is the focus of the study
variables not easily measured with numbers
a selection of the population used for the study
a study that considers individuals from different groups at the same time