Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (45)

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1

## the goal of a study

### to be unbiased and provide good results

2

## EPSEM

### equal probability of selection method

3

## household bias

###
when a respondent answers for a group,

over represented individual

4

## stratified random sampling

###
population is divided into groups called the strata

how?

divide population into strata

randomly sample each group in proportion to size (household bias)

why?

can provide more precise results

groups are different but are similar within

5

## types of bias

###
sampling bias

non response bias

household bias

response bias

6

## 5 types of causal relationships:

###
cause and effect-one changes, effects other

common cause factor-external factor effects both

reverse cause and effect- opposite independent and dependent variables

accidental relationships- not effecting each other only coincidence

presumed relationship- correlation seems to exist but difficult to identify a common factor

7

## what are the two types of data sources?

###
primary- collected by person doing analysis

and secondary- collected by an outside source

8

## index

###
number that provides a measure of scale to compare data

ex. Rictor scale measures earthquakes

9

## in a survey you should...

###
avoid the truth

uphold a high standard for your work

10

## what is bias?

### an unintended influence on a. data gathering method

11

## what is a thesis?

### the focus of your project that declares what you believe and are proving

12

## other sampling methods

###
destructive sampling-samples destroyed in the process

voluntary response sample-people invited to participate, often skewed results because only some respond, not random

convenience samples- not random, pick random people off the street

13

## what is sampling bias?

### when the chosen sample does not accurately represent the population

14

## inference

### a conclusion on the population based on sample data

15

## quantitative data

### variables measured numerically

16

## what should you not do in a thesis?

###
avoid vague language

not first person

17

## in Excel what does the dollar sign mean?

###
absolute or fixed

complete the same operation by the same number each time

18

## if statement in Excel completes the action:

### if one is greater than a certain value a ___ will be shown if it is less a ____ is shown

19

## Hawthorne effect

### people behave differently when being watched

20

## correlation

###
the apparent relationship between two variables

(positive/negative, strong/weak)

21

## placebo effect

### an inactive drug is administered to a subject who exhibits a positive reaction to the drug

22

## what makes a good thesis?

###
be specific and focused,

should propose an arguable point

23

##
simple random sampling

###
all selections and combinations are equally likely

deviations due to chance

how?

generate random numbers

assign the numbers to all elements in population

pull numbers at random and choose those elements

why?

easy to understand

theoretical fairness

24

## census

### a collection of data taken from the entire population

25

## what are the 3 questions asked before a survey is taken?

###
what is the population?

what should the sample size be?

how are the individuals chosen for the sample?

26

## population

### a group of individuals that is the focus of the study

27

## qualitative data

###
variables not easily measured with numbers

ex feelings

28

## sample

### a selection of the population used for the study

29

## cross-sectional study

### a study that considers individuals from different groups at the same time

30