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1

the goal of a study

to be unbiased and provide good results

2

EPSEM

equal probability of selection method

3

household bias

when a respondent answers for a group,

over represented individual

4

stratified random sampling

population is divided into groups called the strata

how?
divide population into strata
randomly sample each group in proportion to size (household bias)

why?
can provide more precise results
groups are different but are similar within

5

types of bias

sampling bias
non response bias
household bias
response bias

6

5 types of causal relationships:

cause and effect-one changes, effects other

common cause factor-external factor effects both

reverse cause and effect- opposite independent and dependent variables

accidental relationships- not effecting each other only coincidence

presumed relationship- correlation seems to exist but difficult to identify a common factor

7

what are the two types of data sources?

primary- collected by person doing analysis

and secondary- collected by an outside source

8

index

number that provides a measure of scale to compare data

ex. Rictor scale measures earthquakes

9

in a survey you should...

avoid the truth
uphold a high standard for your work

10

what is bias?

an unintended influence on a. data gathering method

11

what is a thesis?

the focus of your project that declares what you believe and are proving

12

other sampling methods

destructive sampling-samples destroyed in the process

voluntary response sample-people invited to participate, often skewed results because only some respond, not random

convenience samples- not random, pick random people off the street

13

what is sampling bias?

when the chosen sample does not accurately represent the population

14

inference

a conclusion on the population based on sample data

15

quantitative data

variables measured numerically

16

what should you not do in a thesis?

avoid vague language
not first person

17

in Excel what does the dollar sign mean?

absolute or fixed

complete the same operation by the same number each time

18

if statement in Excel completes the action:

if one is greater than a certain value a ___ will be shown if it is less a ____ is shown

19

Hawthorne effect

people behave differently when being watched

20

correlation

the apparent relationship between two variables
(positive/negative, strong/weak)

21

placebo effect

an inactive drug is administered to a subject who exhibits a positive reaction to the drug

22

what makes a good thesis?

be specific and focused,

should propose an arguable point

23

simple random sampling

all selections and combinations are equally likely
deviations due to chance

how?
generate random numbers
assign the numbers to all elements in population
pull numbers at random and choose those elements

why?
easy to understand
theoretical fairness

24

census

a collection of data taken from the entire population

25

what are the 3 questions asked before a survey is taken?

what is the population?

what should the sample size be?

how are the individuals chosen for the sample?

26

population

a group of individuals that is the focus of the study

27

qualitative data

variables not easily measured with numbers
ex feelings

28

sample

a selection of the population used for the study

29

cross-sectional study

a study that considers individuals from different groups at the same time

30

relative in Excel is represented by a

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