Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (27):
A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world.
Description, prediction, control and development of technology
Goals of Science
Empirical phenomena; Direct observation & measurement of phenomena or its permanent products.
Physics, chemistry, biology, behavior analysis
Types of natural science
Hypothetical constructs outside the natural realm; Indirect observation & measurement.
Psychology, sociology, political science
Types of social science
Determinism, empiricism, parsimony, philosophical doubt, pragmatism
The universe is a lawful and orderly place.
Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of the phenomena of interest, behavior
Systematic manipulation of an independent variable.
Repeating any part of an experiment
Requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomena of interest be ruled out experimentally before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.
Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application.
The philosophy or world view underlying behavior analysis. Posits that behavior is the subject matter of our science.
B.F. Skinner's philosophy of the science of human behavior. Most influential type of behaviorism for guiding the science and practice of behavior analysis.
Causes of behavior; probabilistic
Determinants of Behavior
The process in which repeated cycles occur of variation, interaction with the environment, and differential replication as a function of the interaction
The environment selects which variations survive and are passed on.
Cultural practices evolve as they contribute to the success of the practicing group.
the nearness of events in time.
A dependency between events.
S-S contingencies (pairing)
S-R-S contingencies (or the 3-term contingency)
Types of contingencies
Analysis and interpretation
contingently present a stimulus immediately after the response
Consequential Operation (+)
Contingently remove a stimulus immediately after the response.
Consequential Operation (-)