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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (27):
1

A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world.

Science

2

Description, prediction, control and development of technology

Goals of Science

3

Empirical phenomena; Direct observation & measurement of phenomena or its permanent products.

Natural science

4

Physics, chemistry, biology, behavior analysis

Types of natural science

5

Hypothetical constructs outside the natural realm; Indirect observation & measurement.

Social science

6

Psychology, sociology, political science

Types of social science

7

Determinism, empiricism, parsimony, philosophical doubt, pragmatism

Philosophical assumptions

8

The universe is a lawful and orderly place.

Determinism

9

Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of the phenomena of interest, behavior

Empiricism

10

Systematic manipulation of an independent variable.

Experimentation

11

Repeating any part of an experiment

Replication

12

Requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomena of interest be ruled out experimentally before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.

Parsimony

13

Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.

Philosophical Doubt

14

Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application.

Pragmatism

15

The philosophy or world view underlying behavior analysis. Posits that behavior is the subject matter of our science.

Behaviorism

16

B.F. Skinner's philosophy of the science of human behavior. Most influential type of behaviorism for guiding the science and practice of behavior analysis.

Radical Behaviorism

17

Causes of behavior; probabilistic

Determinants of Behavior

18

The process in which repeated cycles occur of variation, interaction with the environment, and differential replication as a function of the interaction

Selection

19

The environment selects which variations survive and are passed on.

Natural Selection

20

Cultural practices evolve as they contribute to the success of the practicing group.

Cultural Selection

21

the nearness of events in time.

Temporal Contiguity

22

A dependency between events.

Contingency

23

S-S contingencies (pairing)
R-S contingencies
S-R-S contingencies (or the 3-term contingency)

Types of contingencies

24

Direct observation
Repeated measures
Graph data
Manipulation
Systematic evaluation
Analysis and interpretation

Basic operations

25

contingently present a stimulus immediately after the response

Consequential Operation (+)

26

Contingently remove a stimulus immediately after the response.

Consequential Operation (-)

27

A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.

Learning.