Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (55):
The application of the principles of operant and respondent learning derived from the experimental analysis of behavior and the application of methods and procedures validated by ABA researchers to assess and improve socially important human behaviors
Life changes that represent a persons aspirations, dreams, and broad preferences
They are specified in _______. _________, which clearly defined these broad Goals relating to various areas.
Behavior and behavior change
Leads To Outcomes
Those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group
Any defined, observable, and measurable behavior which is the focus of assessment, analysis, and intervention
Skill deficits, problems with strength of behavior, problems with performance, problems with stimulus control, problems with generality, behavior excesses.
Types of problems with behavior
Helps individual achieve outcomes, behavior deficit makes the person to dependent on others, behavior is harmful, dangerous or illegal, behavior is controlled by meds or restraints, behavior excludes individual from social situations, but Haviar interferes with independent functioning.
Behavior is being controlled by psycho tropic medications or by mechanical or manual restraints.
Behavior excludes the individual from groups and communities., May disrupt disturb or is bizarre
Behavior interferes with independent functioning such as living, working, socializing, and playing.
Reasons for selecting target behavior
The treatment goals and the achieved outcomes are acceptable, socially relevant, and useful to the individual receiving services and to those who care about the individual.
Objective, clear, complete
Characteristics of a good response definition
The practitioner gather his basic information about the case, determines if behavioral services are appropriate, and if he or she is the appropriate provider of those services
Determine who has the authority to give consent for services.
Determine whether or not you have the permission, skills, time, and resources to begin assessment.
Complete intake paperwork or the equivalent, may be done by cleric,
review records and available data
, meet client and begin observations
Steps of preliminary assessment
To help the individuals we serve to have a better quality of life and to achieve meaningful outcomes,
Main goal of ABA practitioners
We change socially significant behavior is only to....
Make a difference in peoples lives
The assessment, design, implementation, evaluation, and revision of intervention programs to change behavior of individuals and groups and
Behavior analytic consultation to individuals and organizations.
ABA practice includes this but is not limited to
1. Direct observation
3 graphing, charting
4 manipulation of antecedents and consequences
In the clinic and real world
ABA practice involves
Access to reinforcers
Avoidance of aversive stimuli
Health and safety
Variety and diversity of things, activities, people and events in the persons life
Outcomes specified in outcome statements.
Socially significant Outcomes
Contextualu appropriate outcomes
Outcomes and behavior change
Not specific changes in behavior
Represent changes in the persons overall life experience.
Make a diff I’m people’s lives
Can address improvements in:
School life and/or work life
Social life and/or leisure life
I want to move out On my own
I want to own my own home
I want to get married
I want to have children and raise a family
Sample outcomes home
I want to graduate from high school.
I want to get excepted into a scholarship to Florida Tech.
I want to graduate from college.
I want to be excepted to Florida text Masters program in ABA.
I want to graduate with my MS degree
Social outcomes school
I want to get my BC BA
I want to get a job as a school board behavior analyst
I want to get a raise/promotion
I want to have a flexible work schedule
Sample outcomes – work – employee
I want to employees to be more productive/more accurate. I want to reduce sick time. I want to reduce accidents. I want to make greater profits
Sample Outcomes-Work for an employer
I want to have at least two friends and who I can confide and with whom I can share my life. I want to go out with friends at least a couple of times per month. I want to learn to play golf. I want to learn to play the piano.
Sample outcomes Social/leisure
I want to communicate in such a way that I am more likely to get what I want.
I want to maintain my current lifestyle after retirement
Sample outcomes- Other
Graduating from high school
Moving to your own apartment
Buying a house
Getting a job as a behavior analyst
Observable and measurable Outcomes
How are behavior and behavior change related to outcomes?
Behavior and behavior change lead to outcomes
Adult outcomes can in part be seen as a function of
Adaptive behavior competencies
(Mazefsky, Williams, Minshew 2008
Adaptive behavior competencies will get you through times of no academic skills; better than academic skills will get you through times of no adaptive behavior competencies (Gerhardt 2012
Refers to typical performance of individuals without disabilities in meeting environmental expectations.
Changes according to a person’s age, cultural expectations and environmental demands Heward 2005
Adaptive behavior (continued)
Outcome: lisa wants to live in her own apartment
What behavior does Lisa need to engage in to live in her own apartment?
Mike wants to eat his dinner as soon as he gets home from work
What behavior does mike need to engage in to eat dinner as soon as he gets home?
Examples of Adaptive Behavior leading to Outcomes
Problem behavior can be replaced with
Targeted for development, strengthening, replacement, we can, to get under stimulus control, or for maintenance or generalization
1 asking a new fellow student about her hobbies
2. Buying items with the lowest sugar content after checking the labels
3. Catching a bus to get home
4. Floating in a pool without drowning
5. Frying an egg without burning it
Examples of target behaviors
Skill deficits. Problems with strength of behavior. Problems with performance. Problems with stimulus control. Problems with generality. Behavior excesses.
Types of problems
Can’t do skill deficit
-/Does not do at all,
does but not independently,
only with assistance,
does but does not initiate,
only does when told to do,
maybe performance problem
Problem with strength.
Does but Not well enough, lax mastery, does well enough but lacks fluency, does well enough but not frequently enough
Wont do, performance problem
Does, but only under limited circumstances, problems with generality
Does at the wrong time or in the wrong place, problem with stimulus control
Does too much, behavior excess
Problems with behavior
Must pass the dead man’s test
Behavior and not only a label. Though you may use some labels for response classes.
Can you count it?
The more specific the better usually
Choose the target behavior that will have the greatest impact
If you target behavior to decelerate you must target at least one replacement behavior for increase
Targeting behavior general guidelines
1. The social significance of the goals of intervention
2. The acceptance of the intervention for stager is by society, direct participants, and the individual serve.
Three. Consumer satisfaction with the end results, both planned and unplanned.
Social Validity refers to
1. Are the girls I want to achieve shared by the people and the setting and in society
2. Well I produce results that are satisfactory to the consumers?
3. will they be effective in achieving the desired outcomes?
4. Are the target behavior is likely to be maintained or reinforced in the target environment?
5 are the interventions I’m considering likely to be acceptable to the participants and consumers
Social validity questions to ask
1 observe competent peer.
Highly capable performers of the skill
2. Interview experts
3 social validity paper/pencil questionnaires
Strategies for establishing social validity
Describe the behavior in terms of what it looks like, the form of the response.
Should include intensity and or severity as part of the definition, if that is relevant
Give clear examples and non-examples
Topography and response definitions
Duration may be part of the definition
Latency maybe part of the definition
The first step in the assessment process is
Identifying the problem
Review records and available data at the outset of the case
Consider Bio logical/medical variables that may be affecting the client
Conduct a Preliminary assessment of the client in order to identify the referral problem.
Practice within one’s limits of professional competence in applied behavior analysis, and obtain consultation, supervision, and training, Or make referrals as necessary.
Identify and make environmental changes that reduce the need for behavior analysis services.
From the BACB task list
Often referred to as screening.
The practitioner gathers basic information about the case, determines if behavioral services are appropriate, and if he/‘she is the appropriate provider of those services
This step of the preliminary assessment includes the bulk of the screening process and covers most of the goals of the preliminary assessment.
Determine whether or not you have the permission, skills, time, and resources to begin assessment
A. Begin to identify the problem or problems.
B. Determine whether or not ABA services are needed and/or desired.
C. Determine whether or not other types of services may be needed such as medical services
D. If ABA services are needed and desired; determine whether or not to take the case.
Begin to identify simple environmental changes that may reduce the need for ABA services. Begin to identify outcomes if any.
Begin to identify outcomes if any
Goals of A preliminary assessment
Is it really a problem with behavior?
Is the problem with the prospective client or someone else?
Goal.B- part 1: ABA services needed/desired?
Problems significant enough to require intervention?
Problems amenable to environmental manipulation?
Support and resources available?
Go B – part 2:
ABA services needed/desire?
Roll out biological/medical conditions by referring to physician, when appropriate. If bio/med conditions take into account.
How about are the services? Behavior therapy by other licensed professional, social services, all the professionals such as PT, OT, SLP, etc.
Goal C: other services?
Is the person group or organization likely to benefit from your services?
Do you have the skills?
Do you have the time?
Do you have supports were you to require them?
Are the financial arrangements satisfactory to all parties?
Goal D: take the case?
3. Complete intake paperwork or the equivalent maybe done by Cleric
4. Review records and available data
Preliminary assessment steps three and four
Cannot do it all.
Does but not independently
Can’t do at all
Can only do it with assistance
Does not initiate but can do it
Only do when told to
May be a performance problem
Does but not well enough
Does well enough but lacks fluency
Does well enough but not frequently enough
Problem with strength of behavior
Does it but only under limited circumstances
Problem with generality
Does too much