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The application of the principles of operant and respondent learning derived from the experimental analysis of behavior and the application of methods and procedures validated by ABA researchers to assess and improve socially important human behaviors

ABA practice


Life changes that represent a persons aspirations, dreams, and broad preferences

They are specified in _______. _________, which clearly defined these broad Goals relating to various areas.


Outcome statements


Behavior and behavior change

Leads To Outcomes


Those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group

Adaptive behavior


Any defined, observable, and measurable behavior which is the focus of assessment, analysis, and intervention

Target behavior


Skill deficits, problems with strength of behavior, problems with performance, problems with stimulus control, problems with generality, behavior excesses.

Types of problems with behavior


Helps individual achieve outcomes, behavior deficit makes the person to dependent on others, behavior is harmful, dangerous or illegal, behavior is controlled by meds or restraints, behavior excludes individual from social situations, but Haviar interferes with independent functioning.

Behavior is being controlled by psycho tropic medications or by mechanical or manual restraints.

Behavior excludes the individual from groups and communities., May disrupt disturb or is bizarre

Behavior interferes with independent functioning such as living, working, socializing, and playing.

Reasons for selecting target behavior


The treatment goals and the achieved outcomes are acceptable, socially relevant, and useful to the individual receiving services and to those who care about the individual.

Social validity


Objective, clear, complete

Characteristics of a good response definition


The practitioner gather his basic information about the case, determines if behavioral services are appropriate, and if he or she is the appropriate provider of those services

Preliminary assessment


Determine who has the authority to give consent for services.

Determine whether or not you have the permission, skills, time, and resources to begin assessment.

Complete intake paperwork or the equivalent, may be done by cleric,

review records and available data

, meet client and begin observations

, document

Steps of preliminary assessment


To help the individuals we serve to have a better quality of life and to achieve meaningful outcomes,

Main goal of ABA practitioners


We change socially significant behavior is only to....

Make a difference in peoples lives


The assessment, design, implementation, evaluation, and revision of intervention programs to change behavior of individuals and groups and

Behavior analytic consultation to individuals and organizations.

ABA practice includes this but is not limited to


1. Direct observation
2 measurement
3 graphing, charting
4 manipulation of antecedents and consequences

In the clinic and real world

ABA practice involves


Access to reinforcers
Avoidance of aversive stimuli
Health and safety
Interpersonal relationships
Variety and diversity of things, activities, people and events in the persons life

Outcomes specified in outcome statements.


Socially significant Outcomes
Contextualu appropriate outcomes
Reachable Outcomes
Measurable outcomes

Outcomes and behavior change


Not specific changes in behavior

Represent changes in the persons overall life experience.

Make a diff I’m people’s lives

Can address improvements in:
Home life
School life and/or work life
Social life and/or leisure life

Identifying Outcomes


I want to move out On my own

I want to own my own home

I want to get married

I want to have children and raise a family

Sample outcomes home


I want to graduate from high school.

I want to get excepted into a scholarship to Florida Tech.

I want to graduate from college.

I want to be excepted to Florida text Masters program in ABA.

I want to graduate with my MS degree

Social outcomes school


I want to get my BC BA

I want to get a job as a school board behavior analyst

I want to get a raise/promotion

I want to have a flexible work schedule

Sample outcomes – work – employee


I want to employees to be more productive/more accurate. I want to reduce sick time. I want to reduce accidents. I want to make greater profits

Sample Outcomes-Work for an employer


I want to have at least two friends and who I can confide and with whom I can share my life. I want to go out with friends at least a couple of times per month. I want to learn to play golf. I want to learn to play the piano.

Sample outcomes Social/leisure


I want to communicate in such a way that I am more likely to get what I want.

I want to maintain my current lifestyle after retirement

Sample outcomes- Other


Graduating from high school
Moving to your own apartment
Getting married
Buying a house
Getting a job as a behavior analyst

Observable and measurable Outcomes


How are behavior and behavior change related to outcomes?

Behavior and behavior change lead to outcomes


Adult outcomes can in part be seen as a function of

Adaptive behavior competencies
(Mazefsky, Williams, Minshew 2008

Adaptive behavior competencies will get you through times of no academic skills; better than academic skills will get you through times of no adaptive behavior competencies (Gerhardt 2012


Refers to typical performance of individuals without disabilities in meeting environmental expectations.

Changes according to a person’s age, cultural expectations and environmental demands Heward 2005

Adaptive behavior (continued)


Outcome: lisa wants to live in her own apartment

What behavior does Lisa need to engage in to live in her own apartment?

Mike wants to eat his dinner as soon as he gets home from work

What behavior does mike need to engage in to eat dinner as soon as he gets home?

Examples of Adaptive Behavior leading to Outcomes


Problem behavior can be replaced with

Adaptive skills


Targeted for development, strengthening, replacement, we can, to get under stimulus control, or for maintenance or generalization

Target behavior


1 asking a new fellow student about her hobbies
2. Buying items with the lowest sugar content after checking the labels
3. Catching a bus to get home
4. Floating in a pool without drowning
5. Frying an egg without burning it

Examples of target behaviors


Skill deficits. Problems with strength of behavior. Problems with performance. Problems with stimulus control. Problems with generality. Behavior excesses.

Types of problems


Can’t do skill deficit
-/Does not do at all,
does but not independently,
only with assistance,
does but does not initiate,
only does when told to do,
maybe performance problem
Problem with strength.
Does but Not well enough, lax mastery, does well enough but lacks fluency, does well enough but not frequently enough

Wont do, performance problem

Does, but only under limited circumstances, problems with generality

Does at the wrong time or in the wrong place, problem with stimulus control

Does too much, behavior excess

Problems with behavior


Must pass the dead man’s test

Behavior and not only a label. Though you may use some labels for response classes.

Can you count it?

The more specific the better usually
Choose the target behavior that will have the greatest impact

If you target behavior to decelerate you must target at least one replacement behavior for increase

Targeting behavior general guidelines


1. The social significance of the goals of intervention
2. The acceptance of the intervention for stager is by society, direct participants, and the individual serve.
Three. Consumer satisfaction with the end results, both planned and unplanned.

Social Validity refers to


1. Are the girls I want to achieve shared by the people and the setting and in society
2. Well I produce results that are satisfactory to the consumers?
3. will they be effective in achieving the desired outcomes?
4. Are the target behavior is likely to be maintained or reinforced in the target environment?
5 are the interventions I’m considering likely to be acceptable to the participants and consumers

Social validity questions to ask


1 observe competent peer.
Highly capable performers of the skill
2. Interview experts
3 social validity paper/pencil questionnaires

Strategies for establishing social validity


Describe the behavior in terms of what it looks like, the form of the response.

Should include intensity and or severity as part of the definition, if that is relevant

Give clear examples and non-examples

Topography and response definitions


Duration may be part of the definition
Latency maybe part of the definition

Definitional issues


The first step in the assessment process is

Identifying the problem



Review records and available data at the outset of the case

Consider Bio logical/medical variables that may be affecting the client

Conduct a Preliminary assessment of the client in order to identify the referral problem.

Practice within one’s limits of professional competence in applied behavior analysis, and obtain consultation, supervision, and training, Or make referrals as necessary.

Identify and make environmental changes that reduce the need for behavior analysis services.

From the BACB task list


Often referred to as screening.

The practitioner gathers basic information about the case, determines if behavioral services are appropriate, and if he/‘she is the appropriate provider of those services

Preliminary assessment


This step of the preliminary assessment includes the bulk of the screening process and covers most of the goals of the preliminary assessment.

Step 2

Determine whether or not you have the permission, skills, time, and resources to begin assessment


A. Begin to identify the problem or problems.

B. Determine whether or not ABA services are needed and/or desired.

C. Determine whether or not other types of services may be needed such as medical services

D. If ABA services are needed and desired; determine whether or not to take the case.

Begin to identify simple environmental changes that may reduce the need for ABA services. Begin to identify outcomes if any.

Begin to identify outcomes if any

Goals of A preliminary assessment


Is it really a problem with behavior?

Is the problem with the prospective client or someone else?

Goal.B- part 1: ABA services needed/desired?


Problems significant enough to require intervention?

Problems amenable to environmental manipulation?

Support and resources available?

Go B – part 2:

ABA services needed/desire?


Roll out biological/medical conditions by referring to physician, when appropriate. If bio/med conditions take into account.

How about are the services? Behavior therapy by other licensed professional, social services, all the professionals such as PT, OT, SLP, etc.

Goal C: other services?


Is the person group or organization likely to benefit from your services?

Do you have the skills?

Do you have the time?

Do you have supports were you to require them?

Are the financial arrangements satisfactory to all parties?

Goal D: take the case?


3. Complete intake paperwork or the equivalent maybe done by Cleric

4. Review records and available data

Preliminary assessment steps three and four


Cannot do it all.
Does but not independently
Can’t do at all
Can only do it with assistance
Does not initiate but can do it
Only do when told to
May be a performance problem

Skill deficit


Does but not well enough

Lacks mastery

Does well enough but lacks fluency

Does well enough but not frequently enough

Problem with strength of behavior


Does it but only under limited circumstances

Problem with generality


Does too much

Behavior excess


Will not do problem

Performance problem