Most of the negative consequences of price controls:
A. Cannot be predicted, because it is not clear which markets obey the laws of demand and supply and which ones don't.
B. Can be fully predicted
C. Cannot be predicted, because it is impossible to predict which prices will be subject to the price controls
D. Cannot be predicted, because the amount of information and activity coordinated by the price system is too vast.
A price ceiling is:
A maximum price allowed by law
What would occur if the market price of a gallon of gasoline were $2.50, and the government imposed a $3.25 price ceiling on gasoline?
A. The price would rise, the quantity supplied would rise, and the quantity demanded would fall.
B. The price would not change but the quantity supplied would fall, and the quantity demanded would rise
C. The price ceiling would have no effect
D. The price would fall, the quantity supplied would fall, and the quantity demanded would rise.
What would occur if the market price of a gallon of gasoline were $2.75 and the government imposed a $2.25 price ceiling on gasoline?
A. The price would fall, the quantity supplied would fall, and the quantity demanded would rise
B. The price would rise, the quantity supplied would rise, and the quantity demanded would fall.
C. The price would not change, but the quantity supplied would fall, and the quantity demanded would rise
D. The price ceiling would have no effect
How does a shortage caused by a price ceiling differ from other shortages?
A. A shortage caused by a price ceiling cannot be eliminated through buyers bidding up the price
B. A shortage caused by a price ceiling happens when quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied
C. A shortage caused by a price ceiling can easily be eliminated through sellers bidding down the price
D. A shortage caused by a price ceiling happens when quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded
How is it that sellers can reduce quality in the presence of a price ceiling?
A. In most cases, quality was too high to begin with and this is what motivated the price ceiling
B. Customers actually prefer the lower quality and the lower price, so reducing quality will increase sales
C. Reducing quality is a way to reduce price without violating the price control
D. They have more customers than they need, so reducing quality saves money but does not reduce sales.
What impact do price controls have on competition in a market?
A. They change the form that competition takes
B. They change whether competition is legal or illegal
C. They change the eventual outcome of the competition
D. They change who the competitors are
Good institutions tend to:
A. Decrease the rate of investment
B. Leave the rate of investment unchanged
C. Increase the rate of investment
D. Have an ambiguous effect on investment
Conditional convergence refers to the tendency for:
A. Poorer countries to grow faster than richer countries, but only if they receive sufficient foreign investments.
B. Richer countries to grow faster than poorer countries given similar steady-state capital stocks, but the poor countries will never catch up with the rich countries
D. Countries with similar steady-state levels of output to grow faster when they're poor than when they're rich until their per capita GDP levels converge.
Which of the following effects would NOT shift the production function upwards in the Solow model?
A. Increases in productivity
B. Better ideas
C. Physical capital accumulation
D. Advances in technological knowledge
"Cutting-edge" economic growth is mainly the result of:
A. Capital accumulation
B. Immigration of skilled labor
C. Technological advances
D. Conditional convergence
Government has a role in subsidizing research and development when:
A. The beneficiaries are below the poverty line
B. It can increase tax revenue
C. It can more efficiently allocate resources
D. The spillovers are large
The Industrial Revolution was in large part due to:
A. The economies of scale realized from mass production techniques
B. Increased education
C. The discovery of large supplies of natural resources
D. The cooperation of governments across the world
Communal property creates a:
free rider problem
Property rights are important institutions for encouraging investment because:
A. They eliminate corruption
B. They increase the total funds available to invest
C. People won't invest if they feel their property is at risk and that they may not realize a return on their investment
D. They tend to support industrial sectors more than agricultural sectors
The main reason for the influence of institutions on the wealth of nations is that good institutions:
A. Raise people's incentives to build wealth
B. Keep the economy in tight control of the government
C. Help distribute wealth more evenly among the people
D. Allow government to more easily convert private property into collective property
Which best describes the growth process from its ultimate to its immediate causes?
A. Incentives, institutions, factors of production, real GDP per capita
B. Institutions, incentives, factors of production, real GDP per capita
C. Factors of production, incentives, institutions, real GDP per capita
D. Factors of production, institutions, incentives, real GDP per capita
Fully 73% of the world's population live in countries with a GDP:
A. Less than the world average
B. More than the world average
C. per capita less than the world average
D. per capita more than the world average
For most of recorded human history, real GDP per capita has:
A. Increased at a rapid rate
B. Increased at a modest rate
C. Remained about the same
D. Decreased at a modest rate
Which statement best describes the cross-country evidence on the relationship between a nation's GDP per capita and standard measures of societal well-being?
A. GDP per capita is negatively related to measures of societal well-being
B. GDP per capita is positively related to measures of societal well-being
C. There is no relationship between GDP per capita and measures of societal well-being
D. The relationship between GDP per capita and societal well-being is positive at times and negative at times
When economists speak on "long-run economic growth" they mean increasing the:
per capita real GDP of a country
Suppose a doctor spends half the year in the US and the other half in Canada and works in both places. How does his production get allocated between US and Canadian GDP?
The value of the services produced in the US gets counted in US GDP and the value of the services produced in Canada gets counted in Canadian GDP
Which of the following is a finished good and should be included in GDP?
A. Antivirus software preloaded on computers
B. Computer chips
C. Notebook computers
D. Power cords packaged with new computers
Since 1950, the portion of US GDP created by services has:
Risen from less than 50% to nearly 70% of US GDP
Which transaction will be included in GDP?
A. The purchase of a used bicycle on ebay
B. The purchase of a home built in 1957
C. The purchase of a real estate agent's services
D. The purchase of 1,000 shares of IBM stock
What agency is in charge of calculating/reporting the US GDP?
Bureau of Economic Analysis
What is the difference between nominal and real GDP?
Nominal GDP is affected by price changes while real GDP is not.
When a price ceiling is in effect:
A. Suppliers get too strong a signal from demanders about their needs
B. Demanders have no incentive to signal their needs to suppliers
C. All demander needs are met at the lower price, so there is no need to signal anything to suppliers
D. Demanders cannot signal their needs to suppliers
Which statement(s) about price ceilings is/are true?
I. Price ceilings cause quantity demanded to exceed quantity supplied
II. When including time costs and bribes, consumers pay a total cost in excess of the price ceiling
III. All else equal, it is more wasteful to allocate goods based on bribes than on waiting time costs
I, II, and III
Flexible prices ensure that:
A. Resources are allocated to their highest-value uses
B. Suppliers will always profit from necessity goods
C. Self-interested individuals will not interfere with the efficiency of the market
D. Prices will always be minimized